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Introduction to Linux - A Hands on Guide
This guide was created as an overview of the Linux Operating System, geared toward new users as an exploration tour and getting started guide, with exercises at the end of each chapter.
For more advanced trainees it can be a desktop reference, and a collection of the base knowledge needed to proceed with system and network administration. This book contains many real life examples derived from the author's experience as a Linux system and network administrator, trainer and consultant. They hope these examples will help you to get a better understanding of the Linux system and that you feel encouraged to try out things on your own.
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Is it safe to unmount the /var partition when the server is running? I normally schedule the copying in the middle of the night when there is no user accessing. It is only accessed by users in the same country.
No -- it would cause all sorts of grief. /var should only be unmounted in single user mode. Have you considered LVM snapshots?
/dev/sdb7 was not mounted when copying was done. The server was idle hence little writing activity when copying. Not a single file, not even the index.html file was copied, from the www directory. I even tried placing other files there, which was also not copied.
I have done this before on live servers, running Debian Etch, flawlessly. It is only now that I'm doing this on Deban Lenny. I don't know if this problem is OS related. Unfortunately, I don't have another machine to reproduce this.
I'm afraid my knowledge of /var is insufficient. I'm going to have to read up on it as I have rssnapshot of my LennyNAS OS partition on my to-do list (only just rssnapshotting my storage partition right now).
catkin, could you elaborate in regard to LVM snapshots or provide some links?
Now this is a very very nice guide to dd utility. Nice job!
Amazing, too, how so old a program proves to be of far more use, than are many of them modern GUI-based utilities. Really, I can see this problem in software development realm: developers create bunches of utilities with overlapping funcionality, while some very old ones are still of very much use.
For example, the almost universal usage of this dd utility, which is also very reliable in that you know 100% what the thing is doing for you, once you hit Enter...
So I find this guide to be very useful and educative. thanks to the author.
1. Is there a way to verify the integrity of a file created by dd? I would not want to find out there was a problem with a backup I made of my /home partition and find out that it was corrupted when I tried to restore it.
2. If I use conv=noerror won't that hide any error that might occur during the creation of the image and cause a problem when trying to restore the image?
3. Can you incrementally add to a previously created image file? It would be nice to be able to update a backup of my /home partition rather than making a whole new backup.
Thanks for a really good and complete tutorial on dd. The man page just doesn't do it for me.