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If you're using the synaptics driver for your touchpad you can use the syndaemon command to disable the touchpad. Another way is to remove the psmouse module (until next reboot). Or if you're like me and always have a mouse connected (wired or wireless), just blacklist the module in /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf with:
The last option is the one I use, since neither disabling while typing, nor the syndaemon worked satisfactory for me. The syndaemon came back on after a while and I got tired disabling again, so I just blacklisted the thing and am a happy laptop user now.
Have fun using Linux.