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Old 08-30-2007, 06:45 PM   #1
similani
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Terminal, how to work with it?


Hello people,

Please anybody to advise me where to learn about "Terminal" ans how to use it. I need to start from the very beginning.

Thanks in advance
 
Old 08-30-2007, 06:47 PM   #2
nan0meter
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Well i don't know if you have experience with the command prompt in windows? If so, well you can use the same commando's in linux like cd (change dir), mv (move), rm (remove / delete), dir (works on most systems, else ls).

But i don't know what you know already, i mean do you know how anything about the directory structure of linux or idk ...
 
Old 08-31-2007, 08:01 PM   #3
similani
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Unhappy "Terminal, how to work with it?"

Quote:
Originally Posted by nan0meter View Post
Well i don't know if you have experience with the command prompt in windows? If so, well you can use the same commando's in linux like cd (change dir), mv (move), rm (remove / delete), dir (works on most systems, else ls).

But i don't know what you know already, i mean do you know how anything about the directory structure of linux or idk ...
Hello nan0meter,

Thank you for your replay.
Unfortunately, I have to say that I don't know nothing about the directory structure of Linux.
I was more-less familiar with Windows98. I never did anything with prompt in Windows.
Do I look hopeless?

Regards
 
Old 08-31-2007, 08:35 PM   #4
pixellany
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This is of course an issue for someone who has only used Windows. Imagine only having an Apple-II or maybe one of the early IBM PCs with DOS. In the case of the Apple-II, I remember turning it on and looking at the flashing cursor--no prompt, no NOTHING. But we quickly learned to type some magic word---e.g.: "write" got you the word processor. Soon, it was easy.

fast forward to Linux: Forget about Windows, and pretend you don't have a Graphical desktop. Type ctrl-alt-F1 and you are back to the basic terminal environment. Do this to get your feet wet:
cd /
ls
.....now you are looking at the top-level of the filesystem
cd /home
ls
.....now you are looking at the "home" folder, with subfolders for all users. Your name should be there.
cd yourusername
ls
now you are in your own HOME folder (not the same as /home). **something** here should look familiar.
To see what's in a file:
more filename

You can learn a LOT with these simple commands (cd for "change directory", and ls for "list"--- more is what is called a "pager"--allows you to see files one page at a time.). Take some time to explore---with these commands, there is no way to break anything. Get lost??--type "cd ~" to go back to your HOME.

To branch out a bit, do a Google search using--eg--"Linux commands". There are many websites that will help you learn more.
 
Old 09-01-2007, 07:45 AM   #5
nan0meter
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The directory structure in Linux is way different then in Windows and i really like it!. You can see the directory structure in Linux as a tree (remember the tree view from windows apps?).

The "root directory" or "/" is the toplevel directory as explained above me, when you think of a tree then this are his "roots". All other folders will be like leaves on that directory. You can check out your own root directory by typing: "cd /". Change Dir /.

Now you might be wondering where your "My Documents" folders are kept. Well for every user there is a folder in "/home". There you have it, there's the root directory again, and as you can see the folder home is a directory in the root folder. Now every user has a folder in "/home", let's say your username is "test" then your home directory would be "/home/test". And only you have access to it.

"/opt" contains the information about your computer like the cpu speed and more.

"/etc" contains most of the configuration files.

"/bin" contains the programs which are used by the base linux system like the command "cd" or "ls", "dir" etc.

"/sbin" sbin stands for secure bin. It's a directory with programs that only root can use. This directory, just like /bin contains programs that the base linux system uses.

"/usr/bin" contains optional programs like text editors and all other programs.

"/usr/sbin" contains optional programs which only the root user can use.

Note: The root user is like the Administrator account on windows systems. The root user is always available on every linux system, although there are exceptions but, normally there is a root user.


Unlike windows, linux doesn't have one graphical shell which is "it". No, linux let's the user chose which graphical desktop environment he wishes to use, and if you like then you can program your own to fit your needs. Most used environments are: Gnome, KDE, XFCE, Enlightenment, Fuxbox and a lot more.

You can install programs by using your package manager, i don't know which linux distribution you are using but almost every linux 'distro' comes with an package manager through which you can install all available applications. All those applications are completely free and open-source. So you can modify it (if the license allows it) or help that team improving it. So you see, it is all built on a large and open community.

If you don't know what a command can do then type:
Code:
man <command>
And replace <command> with your command which you want to know more about. Also most commands support the --help or -h option.

Code:
gedit --help
Now would you like to tell us if you are in a graphical environment? Eg. Gnome, KDE ?

Btw. if you switched to TTY1 (Ctrl+alt+F1) then you can switch back to graphical mode by doing the same but pressing F7 (Ctrl+alt+F7).

You're welcome for more questions!

Last edited by nan0meter; 09-01-2007 at 08:53 AM.
 
Old 09-01-2007, 08:33 AM   #6
Fusi
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this isn't a howto especially for linux but it introduces you to the main topics of using the shell. perhaps you know linux and unix are in the same "family" of operating systems so this introduction will be very useful

http://8help.osu.edu/wks/unix_course/intro-1.html
 
Old 09-03-2007, 04:31 AM   #7
nan0meter
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Better use a linux specific howto because there are some minor changes between unix and linux. Try this howto for example: http://www.linux.org/docs/ldp/howto/...tro-HOWTO.htmlhttp://www.linux.org/docs/ldp/howto/...tro-HOWTO.html
 
Old 09-03-2007, 09:55 PM   #8
chrism01
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Actually,
/opt is for SW installed by you manually ie not using pkg mgr
/proc is a view into the internals of the kernel; don't change anything here
Here is a good Linux intro: http://rute.2038bug.com/index.html.gz. This should be read also: http://linux.oneandoneis2.org/LNW.htm (Linux is NOT Windows)
 
Old 09-03-2007, 10:59 PM   #9
ciotog
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Generally manually installed software goes in /usr/local, not /opt. Certain things tend to go in /opt, for instance it's common for kde, java, openoffice.org and cross compilation tools to be in /opt. Slackware recently moved KDE from /opt to /usr.

Speaking of /usr, you might have a directory full of HOWTOs in /usr/doc/Linux-HOWTOs which contain lots of information. The HOWTO mentioned by nan0meter should be there, if they're installed.

You should also check out the Linux wiki: http://wiki.linuxquestions.org/
 
Old 09-04-2007, 12:11 AM   #10
witz
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Linux Newie Guide : Shortcuts and Commands:http://www.unixguide.net/linux/linuxshortcuts.shtml
Linux File Structure : http://www.comptechdoc.org/os/linux/...structure.html
 
  


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