I beleive I can competently address some of your post. Skip down to the part about 'shutdown -rF'.
If you check the man or info pages for shutdown, you will see that it will indeed force fsck before the partitions are mounted. You are not offered much more in the way of options.
On the other hand, booting from cd would be the way to go because you boot the kernel image from the cd, not the installed kernel. Once booted, if you take a look at /etc/fstab, you won't find any of your partitions! You are running from the cd, not the installed os.
Therefore, print a copy of your /etc/fstab. Then reboot from cd. Then edit the running copy of fstab (from cd) to add the partitions you want to run fsck on. They are now identified to the system running from cd, but not mounted. You can safely run fsck on the unmounted partitions (all of them).
Fsck -a will automatically repair a file system, without questions.
Fsck -r will repair interactively; the larger the system, the longer it will take to answer questions.
Fsck doesn't offer the option to log it's activities. However, you may be able to pipe the activity through tee to a named file:
fsck -a | tee fsck.txt
I've never tried it, so I don't know that it will work. But the tee utility is useful to send terminal output to a file for later inspection.
Finally. Your questions are not dumb. The way to learn is to ask questions. Not asking is dumb.