First off, switch to root and run
apt-get install python
Just in case you don't actually have python installed.
apt-get install python-devel
as root. This should download and install the python development package, assuming it does exist and is called python-devel.
If that doesn't work, you could try downloading the source .deb for python with apt-get and recompiling; see
You could also look at alien (http://freshmeat.net/redir/alien/194/url_homepage/alien
) which can convert between RPM and debian packages. But note that the version of python and the version of the headers will need to match exactly, and this method won't work if one or other of python/python-devel has paches applied.