Right after plugging in the camera (and powering it on), run
and the last lines should show information about the USB device (camera) you connected. Try to see which device file it uses to connect to the camera; maybe it's sdb1 or something alike. Once you've figured it out, make a directory into which you try to mount the device:
Then try to mount the camera (actually/usually the card inside it):
<type root password & hit Return>
mount /dev/sdb1 /tmp/cam_mount
See if it succeeds or not. Note that you might have to run 'mount' as root, so that's why you first 'su -' to root. Instead you could use 'sudo', which you would do in Ubuntu where the root account is locked: 'sudo mount ...'. The device file (here sdb1) should be the one you figured out from dmesg, or if you just blind-shoot, the camera device anyway. Filesystem should not need to be "told", since the cameras commonly use FAT filesystem which in turn should be automatically detected (if not, you can try to add '-t vfat' to the mount command, without quotes). If the command succeeds, /tmp/cam_mount/ should now show the camera contents. If it fails, then there's something "wrong" - either you didn't use the correct device file, or then the camera does these things in an uncommon way.
Before plugging the camera cable out, umount the device if you succeeded in mounting it, and after that remove the temporary directory (this is also done as root, just like the above):
It is possible that you can't just browse it on Linux; some cameras are designed so that the connection and transfer needs something 'special', which is installed onto Windows when you install the camera drivers or Windows installs them for you, but not on Linux. Some cameras can be mounted as regular mass storage devices and they should work (albeit it's ugly if you ask me), but some can't - cameras supported by the gphoto library can be used via Digikam or other apps that use the library, but not all camera models are supported. Especially new models take some time before they're supported by the library, and some rare models might not be at all.
Error messages could help in here; what the mount command says, what dmesg says, ...