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FreeBSD is based of a fork of UNIX created by Berkeley University (BSD = Berkeley Software Distribution). It runs on an entirely different kernel (ie. not the Linux kernel). BSD has a license to call themselves UNIX officially. Linux does not.
You're confused for good reason. Techno-geeks think of the kernel and operating system as separate. In this context the kernel each uses would be irrelevant since UNIX is an operating system. Most people, however, think of them as integral components and, therefore, Linux as an OS, not just a kernel. Technically, again, neither is a registered UNIX system, so it's more accurate to call them UNIX-like. The kernel differentiates them but they're both basically UNIX clones.
does that mean all in linux can be explained in chaos theory?, like me see....... hmm i knew i shoulda learn that!,
but anyways, BSD's all have somthing tehy can all a OS, and everyhting else is a add on, in linux, everyhting is a add on (i think it adds to security personaly, at least it adds to my turst in that my system aint gonna crap out if a add another program ), soo you see?
Ya, I was incorrect when I said BSD had a license to call themselves UNIX. That is definitely not true. The BSD kernel and the Linux kernel are fundementally very different. BSD uses a Mach based kernel (as frieza said) which is a micro kernel. In a microkernel you have a very small kernel that does as little as possible and a bunch of modules on top of that to handle the rest of the system. The Linux kernel is a monolithic kernel. It is huge and handles all the OS required tasks internally. It does have module support for some things, but it is not modular in the same sense the BSD kernel is.
Aside from the kernel, much of the other software is the same. BSD uses still largely develop using GCC. They use things like Apache, xfree86, ect.