How can I make PDF documents smaller (In file size)?
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I think it depends a lot on whether the fonts used in the document must be encoded into the PDF. Try using a generic font like 'Times.' Also, I believe in OOo there is an option for producing "screen-optimized" PDFs, which can reduce the file size if there are graphic objects and whatnot in the document. In my experience, a good text-only PDF output is only a few times larger than what you'd expect for an ASCII text version of the file; my resume, for example, is 9K in .sxw format, 2K in ASCII, and 8K in PDF.
There are also some command-line utilities, most of which come with Ghostscript and xpdf, I think, that may help you compress PDFs. ps2ps, ps2pdf, pdf2ps, etc.
in native XML is around 67Kb. But as a PDF it's 608Kb. Have I done something stupid, or is this normal?
It is a bigger ratio than I would have expected (say, 3:1 rather than 10:1), but the trend is quite normal. You could get some of it back by compressing the file (gzip, bzip or something similar) if you are e-mailing the file, but for general use, it is probably more hassle than it is worth.