I appreciate that you are trying to learn how these things work but I think you should try to focus your learning a bit so you don't get overwhelmed and feel like you are all over the place.
The term "script" can be misconstrued easily, some people will use this term to refer to a compiled C program or to a basic for loop they wrote. It is kind of up your interpretation, it does not relate to a specific language or operating system. A .bat file on Windows could be considered a script.
C is a programming language, and yes most of the Linux kernel was wrote in C and the C programming language is a huge foundation for a lot of other programming languages and applications.
Now lets ask the first question.
Would you like to start by learning how to programming works and then learn how the Linux OS works?
Would you like to start by playing with the Linux operating system and learn programming later?
I would recommend you learn the basics of the OS, what BASH is and how to do the basics with it then you can start opening the programming can of worms.
to start learning the OS. It will give you some BASH scripting exposure which will translate into C programming a lot easier.