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title Windows XP Professional (BOO!)
I previously had Windows XP installed on my computer, and I could boot into either OS fine, but I repartitioned to give Debian more space, and when a finally had a reason to use Windows (I find Palm Desktop much better than KPilot), I installed Windows and now I can't get GRUB to work. When I select Windows XP from the GRUB menu, It flashes some output and then goes right back to the menu.
How do you convince us that your XP has been installed and work satisfactorily?
You said XP has been re-installed and you expect Grub to boot it. Had XP been installed properly we would expect NTLDR to nuke Grub away and take over the MBR by now. Have you re-installed Grub back to the MBR since?
If you omitted the above step then may be your XP wasn't in a working order any way. In such a case Grub just loads a faulty system that isn't bootable.
I just read something from your "Just booting tips" post, and it got me thinking... Would making my Windows Fat32 partition "logical" vs. "primary" make a difference? If so, is there a way to change the Windows partition to being primary without affecting my Linux partition? Reformatting my Linux partition is not an option I will entertain.
Your XP will not boot from a logical partition. XP can only be installed in a logical partition if you have another primary partition to house the NTLDR boot loader. In any case that is a re-installation you are talking about.
If you restore the XP's MBR then Linux is out of the way as far as XP is concerned and nobody can blame Linux if XP doesn't boot.
As with every resizing exercise you must check the health of the system after each step before leaping onto another one. Whenever a fat partition is involoved you should reboot otherwise you may be writing information wrongly because the Bios still working with the old hard disk setting.
The current information suggests when you boot XP Grub reported back it found partition type 0xc which is a fat32 and the only such partition is hda2. Therefore Grub has located it correctly but XP refuses to take control when it is given the driving seat by Grub.
My advice of restoring XP's MBR does not involve a re-installation but will get you back a 100% XP environment and so you will be able to see what error is being reported. At the moment you don't even know what is wrong with the XP partition.
What make you think your XP is in a logical partition?
In Linux the first 4 partitions are reserved primaries. Since you do not have any partition higher than hda4 you haven't got any logical partition in your PC.
I do not recommend to reinstall XP.
I recommend to "restore" XP's MBR and that is the first 512 bytes of its boot loader.
MS has a common MBR. The role of this MBR is like a blind man searching the 4 primary partition. If it finds a primary partition has the booting flag in the "on" or "active" position (or marked bootable in Linux term) it loads that partition into the memory. That is why a standalone MS system must be installed in a primary partition.
If you have restore MS MBR the it is MS's own MBR booting XP. Grub is removed. The hard disk is under 100% MS system control. Hopefully you will see some error messages.
Restoring XP's MBR is a reversible operation.
Re-installing XP "may" not be reversible unless you know what you are doing.