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Old 11-08-2007, 04:08 PM   #1
Registered: Jun 2005
Location: Brighton , sussex , UK
Distribution: FreeBSD
Posts: 56

Rep: Reputation: 15
Web Server Crash - Denial of Service

Hello all

I am currently having problems with one of our web servers that is running an open source php/mysql application for schools and colleges called moodle.

The machines runs okish (bit slow load times) however seems to work reliably until someone holds down the F5 Key in any browser when pointing towards the server and is within out local network. After holding the F5 key for a period the machine runs out of mysql connections and displays a database error. if you keep holding F5 in the browser the machines load keeps going up until it falls over and dies which requires a hard reboot. after holding the F5 for around 5mins the load averages can reach 100. After the machine seems to have fallen over it will still anwnser ping requests and has some output on VGA however with no text or any thing on screen but the monitor doesn't go to sleep. You can also turn the Num and Caps lock on an off but very slow.

I have set the MaxClients to 256 in apache and mysql max connections to 150 however this doesn't seem to stop the machine falling over. THe machine was not setup by me and has been setup stupidly in places. The guy setting it up did not partition the drives at all from the default and also click install all packages button on the fedora setup so the machine has everything from a word processor to dns server. The machine was also not setup with any of the dell drivers or dell open manage which made fault finding a hardware error very hard (orange light was flashing on the front of the server however is blue now).

We have around 500 desktop computers with the college which would be very unlikely to all be using the server at the same time. the machine is on our DMZ connected to a watch guard firewall box at 1000mbit/sec. I believed that this machine with its hardware specs should be able to run any web application with easy. Could the selection of all packages installed debugging software that would slow the machine down or? another question is why do the server limits in apache and mysql not stop the server from falling over. Is there any ways to stop the server falling over to this stupid F5 attack? Could hyper-threading be a problem? Would there be anything to stop this in the watch guard box?

Machine specs:
OS Fedora Core 6 x86_64
Dell Poweredge 2850
CPUS: Xeons 3.0Ghz with hyper threading enabled

Thanks for any help in advanced
Old 11-10-2007, 03:50 AM   #2
Registered: May 2001
Posts: 28,260
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There's a difference between users connecting to your httpd and httpd children connecting to the database (and how as in max_connections, max_user_connections, max_connect_errors, thread cache, persistent vs connect, etc, etc tho I don't know zilch about databases). Posting configs and examining MySQL's process list could help. However that's only scratching the surface since you remarked that:
Originally Posted by inspiredbymetal View Post
THe machine was not setup by me and has been setup stupidly in places. The guy setting it up did not partition the drives at all from the default and also click install all packages button on the fedora setup so the machine has everything from a word processor to dns server. The machine was also not setup with any of the dell drivers or dell open manage which made fault finding a hardware error very hard (orange light was flashing on the front of the server however is blue now).
You could uninstall packages (per group, even) but that takes time (and sometimes a bit of --force) and it won't mitigate space (partitioning) problems. Package install overload should not bog the server down since they won't all run simultaneously anyway but first setting the server up from scratch as a dedicated server makes sense IMHO since then you have a solid foundation to build on.
Old 11-11-2007, 05:25 AM   #3
Registered: Jun 2005
Location: Brighton , sussex , UK
Distribution: FreeBSD
Posts: 56

Original Poster
Rep: Reputation: 15
thanks for the reply
I have noticed that mysql doesnt seem to be running as forked process and is just running as one single process!

port		= 3306
socket		= /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock

port		= 3306
socket		= /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
key_buffer = 512M
max_allowed_packet = 16M
table_cache = 1200
sort_buffer_size = 1M
net_buffer_length = 8K
read_buffer_size = 256K
read_rnd_buffer_size = 512K
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 8M
query_cache_size = 32M

max_connections = 300
server-id	= 1
tmp_table_size = 96M
max_heap_table_size = 64M
long_query_time = 3

max_allowed_packet = 16M


key_buffer = 20M
sort_buffer_size = 20M
read_buffer = 2M
write_buffer = 2M

key_buffer = 20M
sort_buffer_size = 64M
read_buffer = 2M
write_buffer = 2M

Old 11-11-2007, 05:31 AM   #4
Registered: Jun 2005
Location: Brighton , sussex , UK
Distribution: FreeBSD
Posts: 56

Original Poster
Rep: Reputation: 15
Apache httpd.conf
# Don't give away too much information about all the subcomponents
# we are running.  Comment out this line if you don't mind remote sites
# finding out what major optional modules you are running
ServerTokens OS


ServerRoot "/etc/httpd"

# PidFile: The file in which the server should record its process
# identification number when it starts.
PidFile run/

# Timeout: The number of seconds before receives and sends time out.
Timeout 120

KeepAlive On

MaxKeepAliveRequests 100

KeepAliveTimeout 15

<IfModule prefork.c>
StartServers       8
MinSpareServers    5
MaxSpareServers   20
ServerLimit      256
#MaxClients       256
#MaxRequestsPerChild  4000

MaxClients       120
MaxRequestsPerChild  30

<IfModule worker.c>
StartServers         2
#MaxClients         150
MinSpareThreads     25
MaxSpareThreads     75 
ThreadsPerChild     25
#MaxRequestsPerChild  0

Listen 80

LoadModule auth_basic_module modules/
LoadModule auth_digest_module modules/
LoadModule authn_file_module modules/
LoadModule authn_alias_module modules/
LoadModule authn_anon_module modules/
LoadModule authn_dbm_module modules/
LoadModule authn_default_module modules/
LoadModule authz_host_module modules/
LoadModule authz_user_module modules/
LoadModule authz_owner_module modules/
LoadModule authz_groupfile_module modules/
LoadModule authz_dbm_module modules/
LoadModule authz_default_module modules/
LoadModule ldap_module modules/
LoadModule authnz_ldap_module modules/
LoadModule include_module modules/
LoadModule log_config_module modules/
LoadModule logio_module modules/
LoadModule env_module modules/
LoadModule ext_filter_module modules/
LoadModule mime_magic_module modules/
LoadModule expires_module modules/
LoadModule deflate_module modules/
LoadModule headers_module modules/
LoadModule usertrack_module modules/
LoadModule setenvif_module modules/
LoadModule mime_module modules/
LoadModule dav_module modules/
LoadModule status_module modules/
LoadModule autoindex_module modules/
LoadModule info_module modules/
LoadModule dav_fs_module modules/
LoadModule vhost_alias_module modules/
LoadModule negotiation_module modules/
LoadModule dir_module modules/
LoadModule actions_module modules/
LoadModule speling_module modules/
LoadModule userdir_module modules/
LoadModule alias_module modules/
LoadModule rewrite_module modules/
LoadModule proxy_module modules/
LoadModule proxy_balancer_module modules/
LoadModule proxy_ftp_module modules/
LoadModule proxy_http_module modules/
LoadModule proxy_connect_module modules/
LoadModule cache_module modules/
LoadModule suexec_module modules/
LoadModule disk_cache_module modules/
LoadModule file_cache_module modules/
LoadModule mem_cache_module modules/
LoadModule cgi_module modules/

Include conf.d/*.conf

# If you wish httpd to run as a different user or group, you must run
# httpd as root initially and it will switch.  
# User/Group: The name (or #number) of the user/group to run httpd as.
#  . On SCO (ODT 3) use "User nouser" and "Group nogroup".
#  . On HPUX you may not be able to use shared memory as nobody, and the
#    suggested workaround is to create a user www and use that user.
#  NOTE that some kernels refuse to setgid(Group) or semctl(IPC_SET)
#  when the value of (unsigned)Group is above 60000; 
#  don't use Group #-1 on these systems!
User apache
Group apache

### Section 2: 'Main' server configuration
# The directives in this section set up the values used by the 'main'
# server, which responds to any requests that aren't handled by a
# <VirtualHost> definition.  These values also provide defaults for
# any <VirtualHost> containers you may define later in the file.
# All of these directives may appear inside <VirtualHost> containers,
# in which case these default settings will be overridden for the
# virtual host being defined.

# ServerAdmin: Your address, where problems with the server should be
# e-mailed.  This address appears on some server-generated pages, such
# as error documents.  e.g.

# ServerName gives the name and port that the server uses to identify itself.
# This can often be determined automatically, but we recommend you specify
# it explicitly to prevent problems during startup.
# If this is not set to valid DNS name for your host, server-generated
# redirections will not work.  See also the UseCanonicalName directive.
# If your host doesn't have a registered DNS name, enter its IP address here.
# You will have to access it by its address anyway, and this will make 
# redirections work in a sensible way.
#below added by JLR 1/07/2007
# UseCanonicalName: Determines how Apache constructs self-referencing 
# URLs and the SERVER_NAME and SERVER_PORT variables.
# When set "Off", Apache will use the Hostname and Port supplied
# by the client.  When set "On", Apache will use the value of the
# ServerName directive.
UseCanonicalName Off

# DocumentRoot: The directory out of which you will serve your
# documents. By default, all requests are taken from this directory, but
# symbolic links and aliases may be used to point to other locations.
DocumentRoot "/var/www/html"

# Each directory to which Apache has access can be configured with respect
# to which services and features are allowed and/or disabled in that
# directory (and its subdirectories). 
# First, we configure the "default" to be a very restrictive set of 
# features.  
<Directory />
    Options FollowSymLinks
    AllowOverride None

# Note that from this point forward you must specifically allow
# particular features to be enabled - so if something's not working as
# you might expect, make sure that you have specifically enabled it
# below.

# This should be changed to whatever you set DocumentRoot to.
<Directory "/var/www/html">

# Possible values for the Options directive are "None", "All",
# or any combination of:
#   Indexes Includes FollowSymLinks SymLinksifOwnerMatch ExecCGI MultiViews
# Note that "MultiViews" must be named *explicitly* --- "Options All"
# doesn't give it to you.
# The Options directive is both complicated and important.  Please see
# for more information.
    Options FollowSymLinks
    #Options Indexes FollowSymLinks #edited by jlr

# AllowOverride controls what directives may be placed in .htaccess files.
# It can be "All", "None", or any combination of the keywords:
#   Options FileInfo AuthConfig Limit
    #AllowOverride None #edited by jlr
    AllowOverride Options 

# Controls who can get stuff from this server.
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all
#added jlr
<IfModule mod_expires.c>
 ExpiresActive On
 ExpiresDefault "access plus 1 seconds"
 ExpiresByType text/html "access plus 1 seconds"
 ExpiresByType image/gif "access plus 120 minutes"
 ExpiresByType image/jpeg "access plus 120 minutes"
 ExpiresByType image/png "access plus 120 minutes"
 ExpiresByType text/css "access plus 60 minutes"
 ExpiresByType text/javascript "access plus 60 minutes"
 ExpiresByType application/x-javascript "access plus 60 minutes"
 ExpiresByType text/xml "access plus 1 seconds"
#end added jlr

<IfModule mod_userdir.c>
    # UserDir is disabled by default since it can confirm the presence
    # of a username on the system (depending on home directory
    # permissions).
    UserDir disable

    # To enable requests to /~user/ to serve the user's public_html
    # directory, remove the "UserDir disable" line above, and uncomment
    # the following line instead:
    #UserDir public_html


<Directory /var/www/html/munin>
AuthType Basic
AuthName "Members Only"
AuthUserFile /var/www/.htpasswd
require valid-user

# DirectoryIndex: sets the file that Apache will serve if a directory
# is requested.
# The index.html.var file (a type-map) is used to deliver content-
# negotiated documents.  The MultiViews Option can be used for the 
# same purpose, but it is much slower.
DirectoryIndex index.php index.html index.htm index.html.var

# AccessFileName: The name of the file to look for in each directory
# for additional configuration directives.  See also the AllowOverride
# directive.
AccessFileName .htaccess

# The following lines prevent .htaccess and .htpasswd files from being 
# viewed by Web clients. 
<Files ~ "^\.ht">
    Order allow,deny
    Deny from all

# TypesConfig describes where the mime.types file (or equivalent) is
# to be found.
TypesConfig /etc/mime.types

DefaultType text/plain

<IfModule mod_mime_magic.c>
#   MIMEMagicFile /usr/share/magic.mime
    MIMEMagicFile conf/magic

HostnameLookups Off

#EnableMMAP off

#EnableSendfile off

ErrorLog logs/error_log

LogLevel warn

# The following directives define some format nicknames for use with
# a CustomLog directive (see below).
LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" combined
LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b" common
LogFormat "%{Referer}i -> %U" referer
LogFormat "%{User-agent}i" agent

# "combinedio" includes actual counts of actual bytes received (%I) and sent (%O); this
# requires the mod_logio module to be loaded.
#LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\" %I %O" combinedio

# The location and format of the access logfile (Common Logfile Format).
# If you do not define any access logfiles within a <VirtualHost>
# container, they will be logged here.  Contrariwise, if you *do*
# define per-<VirtualHost> access logfiles, transactions will be
# logged therein and *not* in this file.
#CustomLog logs/access_log common

# If you would like to have separate agent and referer logfiles, uncomment
# the following directives.
#CustomLog logs/referer_log referer
#CustomLog logs/agent_log agent

# For a single logfile with access, agent, and referer information
# (Combined Logfile Format), use the following directive:
CustomLog logs/access_log combined

# Optionally add a line containing the server version and virtual host
# name to server-generated pages (internal error documents, FTP directory
# listings, mod_status and mod_info output etc., but not CGI generated
# documents or custom error documents).
# Set to "EMail" to also include a mailto: link to the ServerAdmin.
# Set to one of:  On | Off | EMail
ServerSignature On

# Aliases: Add here as many aliases as you need (with no limit). The format is 
# Alias fakename realname
# Note that if you include a trailing / on fakename then the server will
# require it to be present in the URL.  So "/icons" isn't aliased in this
# example, only "/icons/".  If the fakename is slash-terminated, then the 
# realname must also be slash terminated, and if the fakename omits the 
# trailing slash, the realname must also omit it.
# We include the /icons/ alias for FancyIndexed directory listings.  If you
# do not use FancyIndexing, you may comment this out.
#Alias /icons/ "/var/www/icons/"

#<Directory "/var/www/icons">
#    Options Indexes MultiViews
#    AllowOverride None
#    Order allow,deny
#    Allow from all

# WebDAV module configuration section.
<IfModule mod_dav_fs.c>
    # Location of the WebDAV lock database.
    DAVLockDB /var/lib/dav/lockdb

# ScriptAlias: This controls which directories contain server scripts.
# ScriptAliases are essentially the same as Aliases, except that
# documents in the realname directory are treated as applications and
# run by the server when requested rather than as documents sent to the client.
# The same rules about trailing "/" apply to ScriptAlias directives as to
# Alias.
ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ "/var/www/cgi-bin/"

# "/var/www/cgi-bin" should be changed to whatever your ScriptAliased
# CGI directory exists, if you have that configured.
<Directory "/var/www/cgi-bin">
    AllowOverride None
    Options None
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all

# Redirect allows you to tell clients about documents which used to exist in
# your server's namespace, but do not anymore. This allows you to tell the
# clients where to look for the relocated document.
# Example:
# Redirect permanent /foo

# Directives controlling the display of server-generated directory listings.

# IndexOptions: Controls the appearance of server-generated directory
# listings.
IndexOptions FancyIndexing VersionSort NameWidth=* HTMLTable

# AddIcon* directives tell the server which icon to show for different
# files or filename extensions.  These are only displayed for
# FancyIndexed directories.
AddIconByEncoding (CMP,/icons/compressed.gif) x-compress x-gzip

AddIconByType (TXT,/icons/text.gif) text/*
AddIconByType (IMG,/icons/image2.gif) image/*
AddIconByType (SND,/icons/sound2.gif) audio/*
AddIconByType (VID,/icons/movie.gif) video/*

AddIcon /icons/binary.gif .bin .exe
AddIcon /icons/binhex.gif .hqx
AddIcon /icons/tar.gif .tar
AddIcon /icons/world2.gif .wrl .wrl.gz .vrml .vrm .iv
AddIcon /icons/compressed.gif .Z .z .tgz .gz .zip
AddIcon /icons/a.gif .ps .ai .eps
AddIcon /icons/layout.gif .html .shtml .htm .pdf
AddIcon /icons/text.gif .txt
AddIcon /icons/c.gif .c
AddIcon /icons/p.gif .pl .py
AddIcon /icons/f.gif .for
AddIcon /icons/dvi.gif .dvi
AddIcon /icons/uuencoded.gif .uu
AddIcon /icons/script.gif .conf .sh .shar .csh .ksh .tcl
AddIcon /icons/tex.gif .tex
AddIcon /icons/bomb.gif core

AddIcon /icons/back.gif ..
AddIcon /icons/hand.right.gif README
AddIcon /icons/folder.gif ^^DIRECTORY^^
AddIcon /icons/blank.gif ^^BLANKICON^^

# DefaultIcon is which icon to show for files which do not have an icon
# explicitly set.
DefaultIcon /icons/unknown.gif

# ReadmeName is the name of the README file the server will look for by
# default, and append to directory listings.
# HeaderName is the name of a file which should be prepended to
# directory indexes. 
ReadmeName README.html
HeaderName HEADER.html

# IndexIgnore is a set of filenames which directory indexing should ignore
# and not include in the listing.  Shell-style wildcarding is permitted.
IndexIgnore .??* *~ *# HEADER* README* RCS CVS *,v *,t

AddLanguage ca .ca
AddLanguage cs .cz .cs
AddLanguage da .dk
AddLanguage de .de
AddLanguage el .el
AddLanguage en .en
AddLanguage eo .eo
AddLanguage es .es
AddLanguage et .et
AddLanguage fr .fr
AddLanguage he .he
AddLanguage hr .hr
AddLanguage it .it
AddLanguage ja .ja
AddLanguage ko .ko
AddLanguage ltz .ltz
AddLanguage nl .nl
AddLanguage nn .nn
AddLanguage no .no
AddLanguage pl .po
AddLanguage pt .pt
AddLanguage pt-BR .pt-br
AddLanguage ru .ru
AddLanguage sv .sv
AddLanguage zh-CN .zh-cn
AddLanguage zh-TW .zh-tw

# LanguagePriority allows you to give precedence to some languages
# in case of a tie during content negotiation.
# Just list the languages in decreasing order of preference. We have
# more or less alphabetized them here. You probably want to change this.
LanguagePriority en ca cs da de el eo es et fr he hr it ja ko ltz nl nn no pl pt pt-BR ru sv zh-CN zh-TW

# ForceLanguagePriority allows you to serve a result page rather than
# MULTIPLE CHOICES (Prefer) [in case of a tie] or NOT ACCEPTABLE (Fallback)
# [in case no accepted languages matched the available variants]
ForceLanguagePriority Prefer Fallback

# Specify a default charset for all content served; this enables
# interpretation of all content as UTF-8 by default.  To use the 
# default browser choice (ISO-8859-1), or to allow the META tags
# in HTML content to override this choice, comment out this
# directive:
AddDefaultCharset UTF-8

# AddType allows you to add to or override the MIME configuration
# file mime.types for specific file types.
#AddType application/x-tar .tgz

# AddEncoding allows you to have certain browsers uncompress
# information on the fly. Note: Not all browsers support this.
# Despite the name similarity, the following Add* directives have nothing
# to do with the FancyIndexing customization directives above.
#AddEncoding x-compress .Z
#AddEncoding x-gzip .gz .tgz

# If the AddEncoding directives above are commented-out, then you
# probably should define those extensions to indicate media types:
AddType application/x-compress .Z
AddType application/x-gzip .gz .tgz

# AddHandler allows you to map certain file extensions to "handlers":
# actions unrelated to filetype. These can be either built into the server
# or added with the Action directive (see below)
# To use CGI scripts outside of ScriptAliased directories:
# (You will also need to add "ExecCGI" to the "Options" directive.)
#AddHandler cgi-script .cgi

# For files that include their own HTTP headers:
#AddHandler send-as-is asis

# For type maps (negotiated resources):
# (This is enabled by default to allow the Apache "It Worked" page
#  to be distributed in multiple languages.)
AddHandler type-map var

# Filters allow you to process content before it is sent to the client.
# To parse .shtml files for server-side includes (SSI):
# (You will also need to add "Includes" to the "Options" directive.)
AddType text/html .shtml
AddOutputFilter INCLUDES .shtml

# Action lets you define media types that will execute a script whenever
# a matching file is called. This eliminates the need for repeated URL
# pathnames for oft-used CGI file processors.
# Format: Action media/type /cgi-script/location
# Format: Action handler-name /cgi-script/location

# Customizable error responses come in three flavors:
# 1) plain text 2) local redirects 3) external redirects
# Some examples:
#ErrorDocument 500 "The server made a boo boo."
#ErrorDocument 404 /missing.html
#ErrorDocument 404 "/cgi-bin/"
#ErrorDocument 402

# Putting this all together, we can internationalize error responses.
# We use Alias to redirect any /error/HTTP_<error>.html.var response to
# our collection of by-error message multi-language collections.  We use 
# includes to substitute the appropriate text.
# You can modify the messages' appearance without changing any of the
# default HTTP_<error>.html.var files by adding the line:
#   Alias /error/include/ "/your/include/path/"
# which allows you to create your own set of files by starting with the
# /var/www/error/include/ files and
# copying them to /your/include/path/, even on a per-VirtualHost basis.

Alias /error/ "/var/www/error/"

<IfModule mod_negotiation.c>
<IfModule mod_include.c>
    <Directory "/var/www/error">
        AllowOverride None
        Options IncludesNoExec
        AddOutputFilter Includes html
        AddHandler type-map var
        Order allow,deny
        Allow from all
        LanguagePriority en es de fr
        ForceLanguagePriority Prefer Fallback

#    ErrorDocument 400 /error/HTTP_BAD_REQUEST.html.var
#    ErrorDocument 401 /error/HTTP_UNAUTHORIZED.html.var
#    ErrorDocument 403 /error/HTTP_FORBIDDEN.html.var
#    ErrorDocument 404 /error/HTTP_NOT_FOUND.html.var
#    ErrorDocument 405 /error/HTTP_METHOD_NOT_ALLOWED.html.var
#    ErrorDocument 408 /error/HTTP_REQUEST_TIME_OUT.html.var
#    ErrorDocument 410 /error/HTTP_GONE.html.var
#    ErrorDocument 411 /error/HTTP_LENGTH_REQUIRED.html.var
#    ErrorDocument 412 /error/HTTP_PRECONDITION_FAILED.html.var
#    ErrorDocument 413 /error/HTTP_REQUEST_ENTITY_TOO_LARGE.html.var
#    ErrorDocument 414 /error/HTTP_REQUEST_URI_TOO_LARGE.html.var
#    ErrorDocument 415 /error/HTTP_UNSUPPORTED_MEDIA_TYPE.html.var
#    ErrorDocument 500 /error/HTTP_INTERNAL_SERVER_ERROR.html.var
#    ErrorDocument 501 /error/HTTP_NOT_IMPLEMENTED.html.var
#    ErrorDocument 502 /error/HTTP_BAD_GATEWAY.html.var
#    ErrorDocument 503 /error/HTTP_SERVICE_UNAVAILABLE.html.var
#    ErrorDocument 506 /error/HTTP_VARIANT_ALSO_VARIES.html.var


# The following directives modify normal HTTP response behavior to
# handle known problems with browser implementations.
BrowserMatch "Mozilla/2" nokeepalive
BrowserMatch "MSIE 4\.0b2;" nokeepalive downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0
BrowserMatch "RealPlayer 4\.0" force-response-1.0
BrowserMatch "Java/1\.0" force-response-1.0
BrowserMatch "JDK/1\.0" force-response-1.0

# The following directive disables redirects on non-GET requests for
# a directory that does not include the trailing slash.  This fixes a 
# problem with Microsoft WebFolders which does not appropriately handle 
# redirects for folders with DAV methods.
# Same deal with Apple's DAV filesystem and Gnome VFS support for DAV.
BrowserMatch "Microsoft Data Access Internet Publishing Provider" redirect-carefully
BrowserMatch "MS FrontPage" redirect-carefully
BrowserMatch "^WebDrive" redirect-carefully
BrowserMatch "^WebDAVFS/1.[0123]" redirect-carefully
BrowserMatch "^gnome-vfs/1.0" redirect-carefully
BrowserMatch "^XML Spy" redirect-carefully
BrowserMatch "^Dreamweaver-WebDAV-SCM1" redirect-carefully


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