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-   -   Debian SSL + apache2 (

jef3189 01-23-2009 08:17 PM

Debian SSL + apache2
hi, im trying to setup a secure web server with apache2 on a debian lenny netinst.

I have apache working, http://ipaddrress will direct me to the "It works!" page.

I created a folder usr/var/www/secure for my secure part.

I generated a self signed certificate with openssl (please let me know if I did this right)

openssl genrsa -out ca.key 1024

openssl req -new -key ca.key -out ca.csr

openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in ca.csr -signkey ca.key -out ca.crt
then I created a new file in apache2/sites-available called "default-ssl"
I made a symlink to it: apache2/site-enabled/ssl

<VirtualHost *:443>
        ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost
        DocumentRoot /var/www/secure
        <Directory />
                Options FollowSymLinks
                AllowOverride None
        <Directory /var/www/secure>
                Options Indexes FollowSymLinks MultiViews
                AllowOverride None
                Order allow,deny
                allow from all

        ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /usr/lib/cgi-bin/
        <Directory "/usr/lib/cgi-bin">
                AllowOverride None
                Options +ExecCGI -MultiViews +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
                Order allow,deny
                Allow from all

        ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/error.log

        # Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
        # alert, emerg.
        LogLevel warn

        CustomLog /var/log/apache2/ssl_access.log combined

        Alias /doc/ "/usr/share/doc/"
        <Directory "/usr/share/doc/">
                Options Indexes MultiViews FollowSymLinks
                AllowOverride None
                Order deny,allow
                Deny from all
                Allow from ::1/128

        #  SSL Engine Switch:
        #  Enable/Disable SSL for this virtual host.
        SSLEngine on

        #  A self-signed (snakeoil) certificate can be created by installing
        #  the ssl-cert package. See
        #  /usr/share/doc/apache2.2-common/README.Debian.gz for more info.
        #  If both key and certificate are stored in the same file, only the
        #  SSLCertificateFile directive is needed.
        SSLCertificateFile  ../apache2/ca.crt
        SSLCertificateKeyFile ../apache2/ca.key

        #  Server Certificate Chain:
        #  Point SSLCertificateChainFile at a file containing the
        #  concatenation of PEM encoded CA certificates which form the
        #  certificate chain for the server certificate. Alternatively
        #  the referenced file can be the same as SSLCertificateFile
        #  when the CA certificates are directly appended to the server
        #  certificate for convinience.
        #SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crt/server-ca.crt

        #  Certificate Authority (CA):
        #  Set the CA certificate verification path where to find CA
        #  certificates for client authentication or alternatively one
        #  huge file containing all of them (file must be PEM encoded)
        #  Note: Inside SSLCACertificatePath you need hash symlinks
        #        to point to the certificate files. Use the provided
        #        Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.
        #SSLCACertificatePath /etc/ssl/certs/
        #SSLCACertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crt/ca-bundle.crt

        #  Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL):
        #  Set the CA revocation path where to find CA CRLs for client
        #  authentication or alternatively one huge file containing all
        #  of them (file must be PEM encoded)
        #  Note: Inside SSLCARevocationPath you need hash symlinks
        #        to point to the certificate files. Use the provided
        #        Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.
        #SSLCARevocationPath /etc/apache2/ssl.crl/
        #SSLCARevocationFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crl/ca-bundle.crl

        #  Client Authentication (Type):
        #  Client certificate verification type and depth.  Types are
        #  none, optional, require and optional_no_ca.  Depth is a
        #  number which specifies how deeply to verify the certificate
        #  issuer chain before deciding the certificate is not valid.
        #SSLVerifyClient require
        #SSLVerifyDepth  10

        #  Access Control:
        #  With SSLRequire you can do per-directory access control based
        #  on arbitrary complex boolean expressions containing server
        #  variable checks and other lookup directives.  The syntax is a
        #  mixture between C and Perl.  See the mod_ssl documentation
        #  for more details.
        #<Location />
        #SSLRequire (    %{SSL_CIPHER} !~ m/^(EXP|NULL)/ \
        #            and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_O} eq "Snake Oil, Ltd." \
        #            and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_OU} in {"Staff", "CA", "Dev"} \
        #            and %{TIME_WDAY} >= 1 and %{TIME_WDAY} <= 5 \
        #            and %{TIME_HOUR} >= 8 and %{TIME_HOUR} <= 20      ) \
        #          or %{REMOTE_ADDR} =~ m/^192\.76\.162\.[0-9]+$/

        #  SSL Engine Options:
        #  Set various options for the SSL engine.
        #  o FakeBasicAuth:
        #    Translate the client X.509 into a Basic Authorisation.  This means that
        #    the standard Auth/DBMAuth methods can be used for access control.  The
        #    user name is the `one line' version of the client's X.509 certificate.
        #    Note that no password is obtained from the user. Every entry in the user
        #    file needs this password: `xxj31ZMTZzkVA'.
        #  o ExportCertData:
        #    This exports two additional environment variables: SSL_CLIENT_CERT and
        #    SSL_SERVER_CERT. These contain the PEM-encoded certificates of the
        #    server (always existing) and the client (only existing when client
        #    authentication is used). This can be used to import the certificates
        #    into CGI scripts.
        #  o StdEnvVars:
        #    This exports the standard SSL/TLS related `SSL_*' environment variables.
        #    Per default this exportation is switched off for performance reasons,
        #    because the extraction step is an expensive operation and is usually
        #    useless for serving static content. So one usually enables the
        #    exportation for CGI and SSI requests only.
        #  o StrictRequire:
        #    This denies access when "SSLRequireSSL" or "SSLRequire" applied even
        #    under a "Satisfy any" situation, i.e. when it applies access is denied
        #    and no other module can change it.
        #  o OptRenegotiate:
        #    This enables optimized SSL connection renegotiation handling when SSL
        #    directives are used in per-directory context.
        #SSLOptions +FakeBasicAuth +ExportCertData +StrictRequire
        <FilesMatch "\.(cgi|shtml|phtml|php)$">
                SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
        <Directory /usr/lib/cgi-bin>
                SSLOptions +StdEnvVars

        #  SSL Protocol Adjustments:
        #  The safe and default but still SSL/TLS standard compliant shutdown
        #  approach is that mod_ssl sends the close notify alert but doesn't wait for
        #  the close notify alert from client. When you need a different shutdown
        #  approach you can use one of the following variables:
        #  o ssl-unclean-shutdown:
        #    This forces an unclean shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. no
        #    SSL close notify alert is send or allowed to received.  This violates
        #    the SSL/TLS standard but is needed for some brain-dead browsers. Use
        #    this when you receive I/O errors because of the standard approach where
        #    mod_ssl sends the close notify alert.
        #  o ssl-accurate-shutdown:
        #    This forces an accurate shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. a
        #    SSL close notify alert is send and mod_ssl waits for the close notify
        #    alert of the client. This is 100% SSL/TLS standard compliant, but in
        #    practice often causes hanging connections with brain-dead browsers. Use
        #    this only for browsers where you know that their SSL implementation
        #    works correctly.
        #  Notice: Most problems of broken clients are also related to the HTTP
        #  keep-alive facility, so you usually additionally want to disable
        #  keep-alive for those clients, too. Use variable "nokeepalive" for this.
        #  Similarly, one has to force some clients to use HTTP/1.0 to workaround
        #  their broken HTTP/1.1 implementation. Use variables "downgrade-1.0" and
        #  "force-response-1.0" for this.
        BrowserMatch ".*MSIE.*" \
                nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
                downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0


Here's my ports.conf


# If you just change the port or add more ports here, you will likely also
# have to change the VirtualHost statement in
# /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default
# This is also true if you have upgraded from before 2.2.9-3 (i.e. from
# Debian etch). See /usr/share/doc/apache2.2-common/NEWS.Debian.gz and
# README.Debian.gz

NameVirtualHost *:80
NameVirtualHost *:443
Listen 80
Listen 443
<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
    # SSL name based virtual hosts are not yet supported, therefore no
    # NameVirtualHost statement here

https://server.ip/secure just sits there loading and eventually times out. I am missing a step, anyone know what I'm missing to get my secure server up and running?

auximini 01-27-2009 09:31 PM


First, if you made any changes to ports.conf, I would revert them. It shouldn't need to be changed to get SSL working.

Next, your certificate generation looks correct except for the step that removes the password from the certificate:


cp ca.key ca.key.orig
openssl rsa -in ca.key.orig -out ca.key

Maybe you forgot to post that you did that step?

In your apache config, I would also specify the full path to the key and cert, not a relative one.

Finally, to make your apache config file a little easier to read, this should be the bare minimum needed to get it working. This might also eliminate any other errors if present:


<VirtualHost *:443>
      ServerName localhost or whatever it's called
        ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost
        DocumentRoot /var/www/secure
        ErrorLog /var/log/apache2/error.log
        CustomLog /var/log/apache2/ssl_access.log combined

        SSLEngine on

        SSLCertificateFile  /full/path/apache2/ca.crt
        SSLCertificateKeyFile /full/path/apache2/ca.key

I hope that helps.

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