You have posted so many links and logs, it is difficult to see the forest for the trees.
I understand your frustration, but although you have already given us "too much information", you also haven't given us the "right" information:
What distro is your "server" running ?
What distro is your "client" running ?
What versions of cups are you running on each ?
To condense your problem (correctly, I hope):
- Printer plugged into "client" - works. ( But what, exactly, is "client"? ).
- Printer plugged into "Server" doesn't. ( But what, exactly, is "server"? ).
These are the steps I think you need to go through:
1] Plug your printer into the PC you want to be your print server - let's call it Pserver
2] Configure cups on Pserver so you can print from Pserver to the local printer.
3] Configure /etc/cups/cupsd.conf
on Pserver so that it will broadcast the printer to your LAN and accept print requests from your range of LAN IPs. The cupsd.conf
file is well commented, so this is not too difficult.
4] Restart cups on Pserver so the changes to the cupsd.conf
file are noticed.
For my distro (kubuntu) the command is
sudo /etc/init.d/cupsys restart
Yours may be different, but there'll be something similar (Hint: Search).
5] Fire up cups on the "client". Add a printer. Tell it to search for printers on your LAN subnet. You may have to adjust the default LAN subnet addresses it searches (Eg from 192.168.x.y to 10.x.y.z or whatever you LAN IP network addresses are).
6] Select your printer ( It should be found at something like ipp://Pserver:631/printers/PrinterName
If you haven't set up the file /etc/hosts
on both machines, you'll need to refer to the printer as ipp://LAN.IP.ADDR.ESS:631/printers/PrinterName
Better to set up /etc/hosts
before you even start on this printer business.
If it is still not found, then you haven't set up cupsd.conf
correctly on your Pserver. Go back to step  and try again. Don't forget to restart cups after you have made changes to cupsd.conf
7] Set it as a "Raw printer" (no driver needs to be selected, as this is handled by the driver on Pserver)
6] Print a test page.
Then you should be set to go.
If you have problems, please search for cups howto
then come back here.
If you get it working, it would be polite to tell us exactly what your problem and resolution were.