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Old 01-02-2009, 02:16 PM   #1
samsam_eli
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Question Xubuntu newbie: Help with GIMP, and finding the equivalent of certain winxp functions


I am a complete newbie to Linux, so if you help me, please remember to spell things out. Use small words ;-)

First, some facts:
I have a used Dell computer. Some firm was replacing their computers, so my sis got hold of one for me.
She has installed Xubuntu.

My Problems:
1. I can't find certain info about programs. I'm used to WinXP but can't find it in my Xubuntu. Examples:
a. what version of xubuntu I'm using
b. How many bits my computer is using?
c. Where do I defragment or use the disc clean up?

2. where and what is the equvalent of the "run" command in Windows?

3. I can't download the gimp-help-en file
4. When I first opened GIMP there was a window for choosing colours and viewing history etc. I can't find it
5. How can I run Windows programs on Xubuntu?
 
Old 01-02-2009, 03:02 PM   #2
{BBI}Nexus{BBI}
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Quote:
a. what version of xubuntu I'm using
Start your terminal and type: cat /etc/lsb-release

Quote:
b. How many bits my computer is using?
You'll have to clarify what you mean.

Quote:
c. Where do I defragment or use the disc clean up?
Not required

Quote:
2. where and what is the equvalent of the "run" command in Windows?
Press Alt & F2

Quote:
3. I can't download the gimp-help-en file
From where?

Quote:
4. When I first opened GIMP there was a window for choosing colours and viewing history etc. I can't find it
In Gimp go to File--> Dialogue.

Quote:
5. How can I run Windows programs on Xubuntu?
Using Wine.


This site will address some of your questions and give you a better understanding of how Xubuntu works: https://help.ubuntu.com/xubuntu/desk...e/C/index.html
 
Old 01-02-2009, 03:41 PM   #3
samsam_eli
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Quote:
Originally Posted by {BBI}Nexus{BBI} View Post
Start your terminal and type: cat /etc/lsb-release
I didn't understand this

By bits I mean this: I was trying to download a program and I needed to know if I was using 64bit or whatever

I have tried to download the gimp-help-en file from several locations but it will not work. I don't have any good sites to download it from.



thanks for answering
 
Old 01-02-2009, 04:06 PM   #4
{BBI}Nexus{BBI}
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Quote:
Originally Posted by samsam_eli View Post
I didn't understand this
Go to Applications--> Accessories and click Terminal then type:
Code:
lsb_release -a
This will show you what version of *buntu you have installed.

Quote:
By bits I mean this: I was trying to download a program and I needed to know if I was using 64bit or whatever
Type:
Code:
uname -a
This will display what kernel version you are running and your architecture.

Quote:
I have tried to download the gimp-help-en file from several locations but it will not work. I don't have any good sites to download it from.
If it's not already installed, you can install it from the terminal by typing:
Code:
sudo apt-get install gimp-help-en
or by using the Synaptic Package Manager under System--> Administration. You might also find the application Hardinfo useful to install as well.
 
Old 01-02-2009, 06:05 PM   #5
PTrenholme
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Since you are fairly new to Linux, perhaps a word or two about way files and directories are handled in multi-user systems (like Linux, UNIX, and Multics) might help you understand the terse "Not required" comment to your "How to defragment" question provided by samsam_eli, above.

First, a Linux system uses a hierarchical file system. Basically, everything in the file system is a sub-directory of the root directory, called, literally, "/". Note that "everything" includes files, directories, disk partitions, system memory, CDs, DVDs, running programs, and almost anything else you can imagine. You may encounter the comment that "Everything on Linux is a file," and this hierarchical arrangement is what that comment references.

Second, actual files in a Linux file system are identified by a list of "inodes" which are almost always assigned in a single block on the disk when the file is created. When a program opens a "real" file, the list of "inodes" is read into the program's memory. When a file's contents are changed, its "inode" list is changed as needed. This has a couple of interesting implications:

1) When a changed in a file is made, the changed file is copied into a new "inode" list, and, since the file system manager is programed to do so, that list is, as much as possible, a free, contiguous, block on the disk. Freed "inodes" are re-used as needed.

Implication: Files are very seldom "fragmented," and so defragmenting is usually unnecessary.

2) If one program changes a file that another program is using, the firs program will not "see" those changes until it re-opens the file. That's because it is using the "inode" list it read in when the file was opened, and the nodes in that list will not be freed until the program closes the file.

Implication: Any program (including the kernel itself) can be updated without "rebooting" the system. Of course, you won't see the effect of the update unless you restart the program. (Or start another copy of the program in a new window, which means that you can have -- if you have some strange need to do so -- two different versions of the same program running at the same time.)

There are many other differences between "Windows" type operating systems and multi-user systems which stem from the design goals of the original OS from which they developed. In the case of Windows, it is based on the "Disk Operating System (DOS)" designed for single person usage of an individual "personal computer." In the case of Linux, its functionality was based on UNIX (which, in turn, based its functionality on Multics). Those systems were all designed to support many simultaneous users, so methods to prevent one user's activities from interfering with another user were "built in" to the core of system. (In other words, in a Linux system, security is built in rather than a patched together "add-on.")

If you're using Xubuntu, you'll notice that you'll need to enter your password to make any system changes, such as installing a program or the GIMP help files. That's because a Linux user can't change any file to which access is restricted, and system files are owned by the system administrator (called "root"). By default, you don't have access to "root's stuff," but, if you enter your password (when prompted) you will get temporary access to that "stuff." But only for the specific command.
 
Old 01-02-2009, 06:42 PM   #6
{BBI}Nexus{BBI}
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Quote:
Originally Posted by PTrenholme View Post
Since you are fairly new to Linux, perhaps a word or two about way files and directories are handled in multi-user systems (like Linux, UNIX, and Multics) might help you understand the terse "Not required" comment to your "How to defragment" question provided by samsam_eli, above.[snip]...

...If you're using Xubuntu, you'll notice that you'll need to enter your password to make any system changes, such as installing a program or the GIMP help files. That's because a Linux user can't change any file to which access is restricted, and system files are owned by the system administrator (called "root"). By default, you don't have access to "root's stuff," but, if you enter your password (when prompted) you will get temporary access to that "stuff." But only for the specific command.
Good summary
 
  


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