I think the OP description may have set us barking to the wrong tree.
I suspect the OP's installation ran into a video driver mismatch casuing a break down in the communication. With the installation CD he gets back only the Live CD version operational and not the installed version.
My suggestion to get over the problem is to try the following
(1) Remove the CD so the the hard disk boots up a Grub screen
(2) Select Ubuntu but do not press "return". Instead press "e" for editing. This should show up the 3 to 4 lines of instruction Grub has been asked to boot Ubuntu.
(3) Use the direction key to get to the line starting with "kernel", press "e" to edit this line and navigate to the end of that line and add the following
leave a couple of space before adding this parameter xforce. Then press return. This will force Ubuntu to use the standard driver "vesa".
(4) Press "b" to tell Grub you are ready and want it to boot up Ubuntu with the change added.
Can't guarantee success but worth a try. The above is exactly what you get if you press the second booting choice from the installation CD. Vesa is the basic/generic/standard video format supported by every graphic card.