A Windows Server domain is a logical group of computers running versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system that share a central directory database.
For your purposes, the "domain" you need to integrate Linux into is "Active Directory":
Here is a good "howto" for one flavor of Linux:
Depending on your exact requirements, things could actually be much, much simpler. You might not need to actually "join the domain" at all. You might be quite happy just doing this:
1. Configure Linux for a dynamic IP (use DHCP, instead of a static IP address)
<= This insures your Linux address is fully compatible with your LAN
2. Make sure you have Samba installed and running
<= This insures you can share disks and printers with Windows
3. Simply plug your Linux PC in to the LAN and turn it on
<= Linux will get its IP from the Active Directory server, will automagically register its hostname in DNS (so that other hosts can find it), and will automagically use Active Directory's DNS (so that it can find all the other hosts on the LAN.
In other words, you might not need to do *anything* special for things to work!