Why do os-prober and cat /etc/issue result in different outputs?
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/etc/issue is for any message the site deems necessary. The original use was to inform users of various issues (such as a security message, usage fine print...). Only by default does it tend to have a release message.
Many government sites have a "this is a government system. Use of this system indicates consent to monitoring..." type of warning, and this warning is required to be presented to user connections before the user actually logs in. This is also why services like ssh have a banner option.. the banner file is frequently the /etc/issue message. This is also the reason the "agetty" terminal initialization will output the contents of /etc/issue before the login prompt.
Most have release information in /etc/release, or similiarly named /etc/fedora-release, or /etc/system-release...