That one I can help you with - since .bin files are similar to windows' exe files, they can potentially be a security hazard as they're easily run. So what you need to do is make it executable. To do this, pop open a terminal window and type:
chmod +x NAMEOFYOURBINFILE
chmod changes the file properties, such as read, write and, of course, execute. The +x makes it executable. After that, you can run the .bin file by double-clicking on it or typing:
at a terminal window. The ./ is important because it says run a file from my current directory. Normally executables are found via your PATH and since the directory you put your file (possibly your home directory or your desktop) isn't in your PATH, typing just NAMEOFYOURBINFILE won't do anything because it doesn't know what/where it is.
Does that help?
As far as where rpms and other installers put files, the best thing to do is read the README files that come with the program and/or the installation instructions on the website from where you downloaded it. I'm not very good with that part either but, usually, it goes into /usr/bin, /usr/local, /usr/local/bin or /opt. Most of the time it's at least put in a place that is already in your PATH so it should run from a terminal window. The frustrating part, of course, is sometimes you don't know the exact name of the executable.
It's not terribly efficient, and I'm sure someone will correct me, but you can always type:
find / -iname NAMEOFPROGRAM
and see if it finds it. The / says start from absolute root (so it'll take awhile) and the -iname means look for something with the following name and ignore case. That way, if looking for MozillaFirebird, it'll find it even if you put 'mozillafirebird' as the NAMEOFPROGRAM.
If you're *really* lucky, the rpm might have even installed a shortcut in your menubar.
Good luck, hope this helps!