What is the difference between Regular Expressions and Globbing?
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"globbing" is an alternative name for "filename expansion" in bash (and other shells but let's keep this simple). During filename expansion, bash substitutes a pattern such as *.jpg with the names of any files matching the pattern.
Regular expressions are also patterns which can be used to match things. For historical reasons, not all programs using regular expressions use identical regular expressions. The different regular expressions use similar ideas but differ in detail and power.
Bash pattern matching is essentially just another variety of regular expression. Historically it was one of the simplest regular expressions for ease of typing (for example it uses * to mean "any number of any character" while all the others use .*).