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Set up HeartBeat on both servers so that they communicate their state (alive, dead, ...). Set up and use a virtual IP for your Squid service to offer to your users. Only one server at a time 'owns' the virtual IP and offers the 'virtual service'. If that one server fails for whatever reason the resources get passed on to the other node and, if set up correctly, you'll get a message mentioning the change of state of the nodes.
How are you using these proxies? I would suggest looking at an intelligent browser side script assuming the predominant use is desktop web access. You don't actually need to do anything on the server side to make the configuration HA from the users perspective. If you write a decent proxy.pac file for the browsers to pull down you can do some sexy stuff like hashing the URI's that the browser wants, and using a modulus to convert any old string into a 0 or 1 (or more...), and use this logic to direct the browsers to the appropriate proxy.
Does this mean the best way to enable HA is by using intelligence at browser end?
well best means a lot of things, there is not really a best here. But you can make the browsers do all the hard work, and have a proxy architecture that means every identical link will always hit the same machine, whilst they are all functional, so utilize the cache as well as possible.