I'm glad the USB stick seems to be working now. Let's see if we can figure out your lack of GUI (Graphical User Interface).
Try this in a terminal (the black text screen you're getting) and see if it helps:
service gdm stop | tee >> ~/gdm.txt
service gdm start | tee >> ~/gdm.txt
This will tell Gnome Display Manager (which is supposed to start your GUI for you on boot) to stop and attempt to start again. The "| tee >> gdm.txt" part tells the terminal to show you what's happening while logging all of what it shows you to a file called "gdm.txt". This way, you can see what happens, and also have a log file that you can copy and paste from so that I/we can analyze it as needed. The "~" character (tilde) is at the top-left of a QWERTY keyboard, on the same key as "`" (backtick). Hold shift while pressing that key to access it. "~" always refers to your current user's home directory. In case you're unfamiliar with the "pipe" character ("|"), it's usually positioned near the backspace key, and on the same key as the backslash ("\"), so if you hold shift and press \ you will get a |. The pipe character is VERY useful in Linux because it lets you send the text output of one command into the "input channel" of another. This way, you can make the output more manageable, easier to read, save it in files, etc. There are a ton of useful tricks that use it.
Next, we will need to get that file off of your broken computer and onto a working one so that we can see it on this thread. For this, we can use a USB flash drive and a set of terminal commands. Here are the steps:
1) Insert a USB drive into a working computer and make sure that it has a little free space on it. We'll be needing less than 1MB, so that shouldn't be a problem.
2) On the working computer, rename the USB drive so that it will be easy to identify when we plug it into your Linux laptop. In Windows, you can right-click on the drive in (My) Computer and select "rename". Call it a 1-word (no spaces) name that has no special characters (like punctuation marks). Safely remove the drive when done.
3) Insert the drive into you broken laptop. Some text may come up on the screen saying it's found some new hardware. Don't worry about this text.
4) Type the following into the terminal, entering password as needed:
5) One of the entries listed will have the name of your USB drive in it. Make note of which "/dev/" location entry it's using. It will probably be something like "/dev/sdc1", but may have its own entry after "/dev/". We will use this location when we mount the drive for use.
6) Type this into the terminal to "mount" the drive's partition so we can write to it:
sudo mkdir /mnt/usb
sudo mount -o rw,sync /dev/<WhateverYourEntryIs> /mnt/usb
sudo cp -vf ~/gdm.txt /mnt/usb/
7) Make sure that the file copied properly by "concatenating" (outputting to terminal display) the file that should now be on the USB drive. For this you use the "cat" command:
You should now see what you saw when you first entered the "service gdm..." commands above. That means it worked. If you see nothing, or get an error, then it didn't work. If you didn't get any output the first time you used the "service gdm..." commands (even though you should have), then obviously there won't be anything to see in the file, so it doesn't really matter in that case.
8) Finally, we need to tell the system you're done using the USB drive, and are about to remove it. Do this:
sudo umount /mnt/usb
sudo rmdir /mnt/usb
9) Unplug the USB drive and plug it into your working computer. If you're using a Windows computer to read and post this file, you will need to use Wordpad, NOT Notepad to open it (due to Notepad's bad handling of Unix-style text files). You can find this in the start menu, under accessories, usually. Copy and paste it into this forum using the "CODE" tags, like this (to make it easier to read):
[C O D E]
[/C O D E]
Remove the spaces between the letters when you want to use these tags. (They wouldn't show up as actual text if I entered them properly.)
We'll go from there. We may need to use the above proceedure to get different log files from your laptop in order to diagnose and solve this problem, so I may refer you to it in future posts.
(Also, of non-technical note: if you find a post helpful, you can click on the appropriate "Yes" link on the lower-right of that post. You can also add to a helpful person's reputation by clicking on the white/blue "balancing scales" on the lower left of a post. These sorts of things help to encourage posters to be polite and helpful, and are generally very appreciated. Optional, but still a kind thing to do if you feel so inclined.)