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I would expect the device ID of the MODEM to be /dev/ttyACM0 vs /dev/ttyS1 which would typically be a real serial port and therefore assume efax is not configured correctly. What options are you using when you start efax?
Bus 003 Device 004: ID 0572:1329 Conexant Systems (Rockwell), Inc.
I'm using efax-gtk. it's config file (which I haven't touched) is /etc/efax-gtkrc:
# efax-gtkrc -- configuration file for efax-gtk
# Amend it as necessary and copy to $HOME/.efax-gtkrc,
# $sysconfdir/efax-gtkrc or /etc/efax-gtkrc. This file is searched
# for in that order -- ie $HOME/.efax-gtkrc has priority over
# $sysconfdir/efax-gtkrc and /etc/efax-gtkrc
# Anything preceded by a `#' character is treated as a comment and
# ignored by the program.
# Put your name to appear on the fax top header on sent faxes here.
# This should be in plain ASCII characters. If this is a problem,
# leave it blank as the fax station number will always be given
# on the top header anyway
NAME: Joe Bloggs
# Put your number to appear on the fax top header on sent faxes here
# This will also comprise the fax station ID reported to the sending
# fax machine when receiving faxes
NUMBER: 0000 00000
# Put the serial device to which the modem is connected here (if none
# is given or it is commented out, the program defaults to
# /dev/modem). Do not include the `/dev/' part of the device name --
# ie state it as `ttyS1' or `cua2', etc. With Linux, ttyS0 equates to
# COM 1, ttyS1 to COM 2, and so on
# Put the lock file directory here. If none is given or it is
# commented out, the program defaults to /var/lock.
# With efax-0.9 you don't usually need to specify this, as efax will
# work out the class of the modem. You should therefore usually leave
# this commented out. However, with efax-0.8 the program defaults to
# Class 2, so if you are using a Class 1 modem with old versions of
# efax specify the Class here. Valid values are 1 for Class 1 modems
# and 2.0 for Class 2.0 modems. With efax-0.9 you can also use the
# value 2 to explicitly force the use of the Class 2 protocol
# Specify the page size here. Values accepted are `a4', `letter' or
# `legal'. If none is specified the program defaults to a4.
# This specifies the resolution to which faxes are sent. Values
# accepted are `standard' (204x98) and `fine' (204x196). If none is
# given the program defaults to 204x196.
# This specifies whether the destination fax number is included in the
# top fax header line for sent faxes. The default is Yes. Pick 'No'
# if you do not want this to be shown (say because it includes a pay
# card access number)
# This specifies a prefix to be prepended to any dialled number - for
# example you can specify '9,' here to dial through a switchboard which
# needs 9 to obtain an outside line followed by a delay.
# This specifies whether the program is to redial automatically when
# sending a fax if the modem is in use or the recipient is busy. The
# default is No. Pick 'Yes' if you want automatic redial.
# This specifies the interval between redial attempts, in minutes.
# Acceptable values are between 5 and 1440. This setting has no
# effect if REDIAL is specified as no.
# This defines the number of rings the modem allows to pass before
# answering the telephone when in Standby mode. Acceptable values are
# 1 to 9. If none is specified, the program defaults to 1.
# Valid values for the followinga are `tone' and `pulse'. If none is
# specified, the program defaults to tone dialling.
# The following specifies the initialising `AT' commands for the modem
# when in fax mode. Specify as many of these as are needed, separated
# by spaces for commands to be separated, without a prepended `AT'.
# If none is specified, the program will default to `Z &FE&D2S7=120
# &C0 M1L0', which will be correct for practically all modems
INIT: Z &FE&D2S7=120 &C0 M1L0
# The following specifies the `AT' commands to reset the modem.
# Specify as many of these as are needed, separated by spaces for
# commands to be separated, without a prepended `AT'. If none is
# specified, the program will default to `Z', which will be correct
# for practically all modems
# The following setting specifies the capabilities of the modem. To
# see what these mean do `man efax', and look at the operation of the
# `-c' flag. With efax-0.9 and a Class 2 modem, you usually won't
# need to specify this and should leave it commented out, as the
# program will interrogate the modem. If using an older version of
# efax or a different class of modem, values which will work with
# practically any 14,400 bps modem are 1,5,0,2,0,0,0,0, or
# 1,3,0,2,0,0,0,0 for slower ones.
# The following is the command which prints and takes postscript input
# on standard input. If none is specified, the program will default
# to `lpr'. With lpr, you can specify a particular printer to be used
# with the -P option. It is not necessary to specify this if
# USE_GTKPRINT is set to `yes'.
# If set to `yes', the following will cause the program to use the
# GTK+ print system rather than the command line argument specified in
# PRINT_CMD in order to print faxes.
# The following will determine the extent to which a printed page will
# be reduced to fit within a printer's print area. It is a percentage
# -- eg 98 will shrink the page to 98% of its size. If none is
# specified no shrink will take place (ie, there is no need to specify
# `PRINT_SHRINK: 100'). Valid values are 50 to 100. This setting has
# no effect if USE_GTKPRINT is specified as yes (the GTK+ print dialog
# will be displayed instead).
# The following determines whether a confirmatory dialog will appear
# before printing when the "Print selected fax" icon is pressed in the
# Received Faxes or Sent Faxes lists. The default is Yes. Enter No
# if you don't want a dialog (if you have specfied an external print
# manager such as 'kprinter' in PRINT_CMD then you will want to say
# No). This setting has no effect if USE_GTKPRINT is specified as yes
# (the GTK+ print dialog will be displayed instead).
# A postscript viewer is used to view sent and received faxes via the
# fax lists, and also to view faxes to be sent identified via the
# "Files to fax" file selector dialog. Specify here the command to be
# used to view postscript files. If none is specified, the program
# will default to 'gv'. Other possibilities you may want to specify
# are 'evince' (the Gnome image viewer) or 'kghostview' (the KDE
# postscript viewer). If using gv, you may need to use the '-media A4'
# or '-media Letter' option to select correct paper size. evince and
# kghostview do this automatically
# This specifies whether a socket server is to be run to receive faxes
# from the print system. Specify 'Yes' if it is to run. The default
# is No.
# This specifies whether a pop-up dialog is to appear whenever a fax
# is received by the socket server from the print system. Specify
# 'yes' if you want a dialog. The default is No, and Yes has no
# effect unless SOCK_SERVER is also specified as Yes.
# This specifies the port number on which the socket server is to
# listen. It should be between 1024 and 65535.
# This specifies the addresses from which a connection to the socket
# will be accepted. The options are "other" and "localhost". Unless
# you are behind a firewall or an appropriate router, choose
# "localhost" (which will be fine in the usual case where efax-gtk and
# the CUPS/lpd daemons are running on the same machine).
# This specifies the other addresses permitted to connect to the
# socket when "other" is picked. localhost and your machine's
# hostname are always permitted, so you don't need to specify these.
# Hostnames may be specified as an ordinary host name or in numeric
# dot notation. Numeric dot notation may have * as a trailing
# wildcard, so for example 10.1.* will permit access for addresses
# 10.1.0.0 to 10.1.255.255
# The following parameter specifies a log file to which progress on
# negotiations and fax status, and errors and warnings, are logged.
# If LOG_FILE is left commented out, or is given no value, then no log
# file will be maintained. (A log file can also be kept by
# redirecting stdout and stderr -- see the README file for further
# details). If the log file is not specified with an absolute path
# name, it will be maintained in the $HOME directory (as supplemented
# by any WORK_SUBDIR parameter mentioned below).
# This parameter specifies whether a pop-up dialog will appear when a
# fax is received from a modem. The default is No. Specify Yes if
# you want a pop-up.
# This specifies whether a program or script is to be executed when a
# fax is received from a modem. The default is No. Specify Yes, and
# provide the program name via the FAX_RECEIVED_PROG parameter, if a
# program is to be executed. efax-gtk comes with two scripts,
# print_fax and mail_fax, which can be used automatically to print a
# received fax or to mail it to a user (so to mail a fax you can enter
# `mail_fax' for the FAX_RECEIVED_PROG parameter below). See the README
# file for further details.
# This parameter specifies the program to be executed if
# FAX_RECEIVED_EXEC is set to Yes. Uncomment the line and insert the
# program or script to be executed.
# The following can be used to pass any other parameter to efax (do
# `man efax' to see what is available). Specify as many of these as
# are needed, separated by spaces for different parameters -- eg
# include `-or' to do a bit reversal during receive for Multitech
# modems which require it. Unless you have an unusual modem, leave
# this blank or commented out
# A working sub-directory for the storage of .efax-gtk_addressbook,
# .efax-gtk_mainwin_save and .efax-gtk_queued_server_files and the
# faxin, faxout, faxsent and efax-gtk-server directories can be
# specified with the WORK_SUBDIR: parameter. This working
# subdirectory will appear as a subdirectory of $HOME (so if
# WORK_SUBDIR: is specified as efax-gtk, $HOME/efax-gtk will be the
# working directory). If none is specified then these
# files/directories will be stored directly in $HOME (which was what
# happened before this option was available, so past efax-gtk
# installations will not be broken if this option is left blank). If
# a WORK_SUBDIR: parameter is specified, only .efax-gtkrc will appear
# directly in $HOME. Note that if you specify a value for
# WORK_SUBDIR:, you will need to shift old versions of the files and
# directories mentioned above into the new working directory or
# efax-gtk will not be able to find them, so use this option with
# caution. In addition, if you wish to use the 'print_fax' or
# 'mail_fax' scripts, you will need to set the WORK_SUBDIR option in
# the relevant script. Note also that if a log file is specified in
# LOG_FILE above without an absolute path name, the file will be
# placed in the working subdirectory, or if WORK_SUBDIR is left blank,
# in the $HOME directory.
## end of efax-gtkrc ##