Yes, it is possible to install deb file without internet. Open a terminal, cd to the directory where you have downloaded deb file, now issue the following command
Replace * with file name.
You can use k3b as your burning application, though it is a KDE application. If you want to stick with Gnome applications, then you can use GnomeBaker. Both are capable of many features.
Install "usbmount" through apt-get, it may fix your problem.
As for your other problems, I am unable to help you as I never used notebook. Maybe you try to issue "lsmod" command as root to check whether your network card's module is loaded or not. If not then you can load the necessary module manually. There is nothing wrong about eth0 or eth10 issue as long as it is working properly.