What is the name of the mystery application/package you are trying to install?
Or are you asking us to please give you complete and thorough instructions to install ALL applications?!?
"tarball" is nothing more than an archive file format (like .zip in Windows) so ANYTHING could be inside that tarball!
Here is a wonderful introduction to installing software in Ubuntu:
Why don't you give that a read and then post back if you have specific questions (like "how do I install Skype?" for example).