It would seem that your X window configuration file is missing / has errors.
Usually this file is in /etc/X11/
There are 2 different X systems, Xorg and XFree86 and both use different files for their xonfiguration
look for xorg.conf or XF86Config-4.
If neither is found, you can generate one yourself if your able or let the linux automatically try to generate one.
to generate one automatically try following:
This will generate sample configuratio file in your /root folder. Just copy the file in the above folder and issue 'startx' and you should be getting to your desktop.
Then if you still have problems, post the configation file with info about your hardware so we can help you a bit more.