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Ubuntu uses same password for sudo required to normally login to system. For example if you login to Ubuntu with password "1234" you use same pass to run anything as root. Just do "sudo command" then when asked for password enter "1234"(without "") to execute with administrator rights. Alternative you may try just "su"+enter then "(password)"+enter then command without sudo prefix(i prefer this) but i forgot if this method works for ubuntu..
There's no "sudo password", but "sudo privileges" for users and groups. As root, you can view /etc/sudoers (only for viewing) and change with "visudo" command. The sudoers man page explains how to set privileges.
Then, the default setting in ubuntu is that the user that is created at installation time (id 1000), is member of the admin group, and this group is allowed to run ALL commands as any user via sudo, but asking the password (the NOPASSWD: param is not set) every time (if the default 15 minutes grace time has been exceeded from the previous run of sudo).
You can also take a more complex description as any user by running "man sudo".
I'm not really understanding what exactly you're getting at... But here's what confused me the most:
If you are not getting any text showing while you try to type the pass ... That's normal ... So don't freak out and push a bunch of buttons, or try to retype over and over (I did). When it's displayed in the terminal it'll look like this:
you@computer:$ sudo -l
No stars, no text, no nothing to let you know you are typing in the password field.
As I stated, This is what confused me, because I didn't know (I just though I did it wrong or terminal was broken ) ... and if this wasn't the issue you where having, Just forget I said anything. Best of luck!