Originally Posted by deadlock
3) This is where there is some confusion. Various walkthrough advise copying id_rsa.pub to authorized_keys, authorized_keys2, or using cat to do the same. Anyway, I've tried a few options.
That's the part you are missing then. Just having id_rsa.pub in that directory won't do anything, you have to add it's content to the file 'authorized_keys' on the server.
Typically, you'd do
cat id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
to append your public key to the file, as you might collect more than one key in there (one for each client you are connecting from). You can then remove the file id_rsa.pub.
Make sure you don't misspell 'authorized_keys'. If it still doesn't work, double check the spelling first.