To expand on lone_nut's answer, you need to install and configure Samba or smb. That will allow you to a) access windows shared folders and b) print to windows shared printers.
Now, ssh'ing into your computers might be tricky. you have to understand that eventhough you share cable internet service, every computer on subnetwork has its own ip. i am positive you are using some sort of a router for net access where all your computers are connected to. SSH requests come on port 22 (by default, its changeable to any port really), therefore you just have to setup port forwarding on the router so that any request on ssh allocated port that comes to your static ip address is forwarded and handled by your linux box. its fairly simple IF you know what to do.