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Old 03-16-2011, 04:37 AM   #1
tkmsr
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small doubt in using grep


Code:
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:27 +0530] "HEAD /sk/ HTTP/1.1" 200 169 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:27 +0530] "HEAD /sk/.treeinfo HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:27 +0530] "HEAD /sk/Fedora HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:27 +0530] "HEAD /sk/Server HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:27 +0530] "HEAD /sk/Client HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:27 +0530] "HEAD /sk/RedHat HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:27 +0530] "HEAD /sk/CentOS HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:27 +0530] "HEAD /sk/SL HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:27 +0530] "HEAD /sk/directory.yast HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:27 +0530] "HEAD /sk/current/images/MANIFEST HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:27 +0530] "HEAD /sk/images/daily/MANIFEST HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:27 +0530] "HEAD /sk/boot/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:27 +0530] "HEAD /sk/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:27 +0530] "HEAD /sk/STARTUP/XNLOADER.SYS HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:27 +0530] "HEAD /sk/images/xen/vmlinuz HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:27 +0530] "HEAD /sk/images/boot.iso HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:27 +0530] "HEAD /sk/boot/boot.iso HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:27 +0530] "HEAD /sk/current/images/netboot/mini.iso HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:27 +0530] "HEAD /sk/install/images/boot.iso HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:35 +0530] "HEAD /sk/ HTTP/1.1" 200 169 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:35 +0530] "HEAD /sk/.treeinfo HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:35 +0530] "HEAD /sk/Fedora HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:35 +0530] "HEAD /sk/Server HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:35 +0530] "HEAD /sk/Client HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:35 +0530] "HEAD /sk/RedHat HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:35 +0530] "HEAD /sk/CentOS HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:35 +0530] "HEAD /sk/SL HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:35 +0530] "HEAD /sk/directory.yast HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
127.0.0.1 - - [08/Mar/2011:00:26:35 +0530] "HEAD /sk/current/images/MANIFEST HTTP/1.1" 404 182 "-" "Python-urllib/2.6"
I am having a file of above structure and it is name log.txt.
Now I do
Code:
cat log.txt | grep '[*]'
there was no output
then I did
Code:
cat log.txt | grep '\[* \]'
again there was no output
but when I did
Code:
cat log.txt | grep '\[.*\]'
then there was output how is this working?
 
Old 03-16-2011, 05:20 AM   #2
Peverel
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Look at this, culled from the Man page for grep:
A regular expression may be followed by one of several repetition operators:
? The preceding item is optional and matched at most once.
* The preceding item will be matched zero or more times.
+ The preceding item will be matched one or more times.
{n} The preceding item is matched exactly n times.
{n,} The preceding item is matched n or more times.
{n,m} The preceding item is matched at least n times, but not more than m times.

In the successful case, . matches a charcter, * replicates it arbitrarily many times. Note that in grep, * does not match an arbitrary string, as in command lines.
 
Old 03-16-2011, 06:19 AM   #3
grail
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Actually the there is another reason the first 2 do not work.
Code:
cat log.txt | grep '[*]'
This says return any line that contain an asterix, ie *. As yuo have none in your log then no lines are returned.
Code:
cat log.txt | grep '\[* \]'
This one on the other hand says, return any line that contains zero or more '[' followed by a space and then ']'. Again as this pattern is nowhere in your log, no lines are returned.

Your last entry:
Code:
cat log.txt | grep '\[.*\]'
says, return any line that contains '[' followed by zero or more of any character, ie the dot, followed by ']'. Which in your case would be every line as the time portion is between square brackets
on every line.

Lastly I would add that the use of cat is superfluous in all examples. Simply use the form:
Code:
grep regex file
 
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