You could do this. Most distributions will allow you to do a minimal install.
However, it depends what you mean by the simplest learning method. A minimal install would leave you with command-line interface only. KDE (or GNOME or whatever) are the applications that give you a graphical (Windows-type) user interface.
It may be worth considering installing the default package that the distro suggests, at first. This is likely to be the core, a windowing system and probably Office software, web browser a few games and other programs.
I can't see that the extra software will make it any more difficult to learn the main features of the OS, and gives you something to do with it once you're ready. If you want a command line interface, it would be fairly easy from such an installation: Open the terminal/console and enter init 3 to set the 'runlevel' to command line only. When you want the graphical interface back, type init 5