Yes, you should be able to ping each others, unless your windows-machine's firewall prevents replying to pings.
Are the leds of your network cards lit, if not, it's a hardware (or driver) problem, else a software problem.
The linuxboxes netmask must be 255.255.255.0. And your windows-machine's default gateway must be 10.0.0.1 for you to get to the Internet (but even without this you should be able to ping 10.0.0.1)
If it still doesn't work, post ifconfig
and route -n
Configuring iptables isn' the most straightforward task in the world. I'd recommend the Shoreline firewall, which simplifies things a bit ( http://www.shorewall.net/
). It's website has also good examples of different configurations.