LinuxQuestions.org
Latest LQ Deal: Complete CCNA, CCNP & Red Hat Certification Training Bundle
Go Back   LinuxQuestions.org > Forums > Linux Forums > Linux - Newbie
User Name
Password
Linux - Newbie This Linux forum is for members that are new to Linux.
Just starting out and have a question? If it is not in the man pages or the how-to's this is the place!

Notices


Reply
  Search this Thread
Old 12-16-2009, 11:24 AM   #1
carolflb
Member
 
Registered: Oct 2009
Posts: 40

Rep: Reputation: 15
SED: how to insert a "&" character in a file


Hi guys,

I'm having a problem with SED and the special character "&". I have a sentence, in which the character "&" appears three times. I saved it as a string:

String="<template>\n<name>InputGen_$inputName#process<\/name>\n<parameter>chan \&amp;$inputName#write#ctrl, int\[-4294967296, 4294967296\] \&amp;$inputName#write#param#val, chan \&amp;process#ctrl<\/parameter>\n<location id=\"id139\" x=\"-1648\" y=\"-40\">\n<urgent\/>\n<\/location>\n<location id=\"id140\" x=\"-1648\" y=\"-144\">\n<\/location><location id=\"id141\" x=\"-1648\" y=\"-240\">\n<urgent\/>\n<\/location>\n<location id=\"id142\" x=\"-1760\" y=\"-240\">\n<urgent\/>\n<\/location>\n<location id=\"id143\" x=\"-1888\" y=\"-240\">\n<\/location>\n<location id=\"id144\" x=\"-2024\" y=\"-240\">\n<urgent\/>\n<\/location>\n<location id=\"id145\" x=\"-2024\" y=\"-392\">\n<\/location>\n<init ref=\"id145\"\/>\n<transition>\n<source ref=\"id139\"\/>\n<target ref=\"id144\"\/>\n<nail x=\"-2024\" y=\"-40\"\/>\n<\/transition>\n<transition>\n<source ref=\"id140\"\/>\n<target ref=\"id139\"\/>\n<label kind=\"synchronisation\" x=\"-1640\" y=\"-112\">\n$inputName#write#ctrl?<\/label>\n<\/transition>\n<transition>\n<source ref=\"id141\"\/>\n<target ref=\"id140\"\/>\n<label kind=\"select\" x=\"-1640\" y=\"-224\">\ninterval$a : int\[0,10\]<\/label>\n<label kind=\"synchronisation\" x=\"-1640\" y=\"-208\">\n$inputName#write#ctrl"'!'"<\/label>"

And I wanted to insert this string in a text file under the first occurance of the word "</declaration>", using:

sed -i '0,/<\/declaration>/s/<\/declaration>/<\/declaration>\n'"${String}"'/' file.txt


As you can see, I was already inserting an "\" in the string before each special character, but it doesn't help in case I put it in the front of the character "&", i.e. "\&".

Would somebody know what I need to do, to be able to have "&" in my string and insert it in the text file using the command SED?

PS: "InputName" and "a" are variables with the values: "output" and "0"

Last edited by carolflb; 12-16-2009 at 11:25 AM.
 
Old 12-16-2009, 11:44 AM   #2
GrapefruiTgirl
LQ Guru
 
Registered: Dec 2006
Location: underground
Distribution: Slackware64
Posts: 7,594

Rep: Reputation: 551Reputation: 551Reputation: 551Reputation: 551Reputation: 551Reputation: 551
This *seems to work for me:

Code:
#!/bin/bash

string="<template>\n<name>InputGen_$inputName#process<\/name>\n<parameter>chan \&amp;$inputName#write#ctrl, int\[-4294967296, 4294967296\] \&amp;$inputName#write#param#val, chan \&amp;process#ctrl<\/parameter>\n<location id=\"id139\" x=\"-1648\" y=\"-40\">\n<urgent\/>\n<\/location>\n<location id=\"id140\" x=\"-1648\" y=\"-144\">\n<\/location><location id=\"id141\" x=\"-1648\" y=\"-240\">\n<urgent\/>\n<\/location>\n<location id=\"id142\" x=\"-1760\" y=\"-240\">\n<urgent\/>\n<\/location>\n<location id=\"id143\" x=\"-1888\" y=\"-240\">\n<\/location>\n<location id=\"id144\" x=\"-2024\" y=\"-240\">\n<urgent\/>\n<\/location>\n<location id=\"id145\" x=\"-2024\" y=\"-392\">\n<\/location>\n<init ref=\"id145\"\/>\n<transition>\n<source ref=\"id139\"\/>\n<target ref=\"id144\"\/>\n<nail x=\"-2024\" y=\"-40\"\/>\n<\/transition>\n<transition>\n<source ref=\"id140\"\/>\n<target ref=\"id139\"\/>\n<label kind=\"synchronisation\" x=\"-1640\" y=\"-112\">\n$inputName#write#ctrl?<\/label>\n<\/transition>\n<transition>\n<source ref=\"id141\"\/>\n<target ref=\"id140\"\/>\n<label kind=\"select\" x=\"-1640\" y=\"-224\">\ninterval$a : int\[0,10\]<\/label>\n<label kind=\"synchronisation\" x=\"-1640\" y=\"-208\">\n$inputName#write#ctrl"'!'"<\/label>"

sed -i.BAK 's/\(<\/declaration>\)/\n\1'"$string"'\n/' ./decla
but if it isn't precisely what you need, tell us what's wrong with it.

PS NOTE: "./decla" is the filename of the test php file I made to test this, so change as needed.

Sasha

Last edited by GrapefruiTgirl; 12-16-2009 at 11:45 AM.
 
Old 12-16-2009, 12:10 PM   #3
berbae
Member
 
Registered: Jul 2005
Location: France
Distribution: Arch Linux
Posts: 540

Rep: Reputation: Disabled
Code:
#!/bin/bash

String='<template>\n<name>InputGen_$inputName#process</name>\n<parameter>chan \&amp;$inputName#write#ctrl, int[-4294967296, 4294967296] \&amp;$inputName#write#param#val, chan \&amp;process#ctrl</parameter>\n<location id="id139" x="-1648" y="-40">\n<urgent/>\n</location>\n<location id="id140" x="-1648" y="-144">\n</location><location id="id141" x="-1648" y="-240">\n<urgent/>\n</location>\n<location id="id142" x="-1760" y="-240">\n<urgent/>\n</location>\n<location id="id143" x="-1888" y="-240">\n</location>\n<location id="id144" x="-2024" y="-240">\n<urgent/>\n</location>\n<location id="id145" x="-2024" y="-392">\n</location>\n<init ref="id145"/>\n<transition>\n<source ref="id139"/>\n<target ref="id144"/>\n<nail x="-2024" y="-40"/>\n</transition>\n<transition>\n<source ref="id140"/>\n<target ref="id139"/>\n<label kind="synchronisation" x="-1640" y="-112">\n$inputName#write#ctrl?</label>\n</transition>\n<transition>\n<source ref="id141"/>\n<target ref="id140"/>\n<label kind="select" x="-1640" y="-224">\ninterval$a : int[0,10]</label>\n<label kind="synchronisation" x="-1640" y="-208">\n$inputName#write#ctrl"'!'"</label>'

sed -i.bak "0,/<\/declaration>/s+</declaration>+</declaration>\n${String}+" file.txt
Note :
String='\&' single quotes and only the & characters are with backslash
and
sed "s+++" double quotes and the + sign for the s command (instead of /).
 
Old 12-18-2009, 08:29 AM   #4
carolflb
Member
 
Registered: Oct 2009
Posts: 40

Original Poster
Rep: Reputation: 15
Hi people,

both solutions are not working... I need it to insert the "String" just after the first occurance of the word "</declaration>". And $inputName needs to be substituted by its value, so once SED inserts the sentence it needs to write "output" and NOT "$inputName" in the file.

@berbae: your solution is giving me this:


</declaration>
<template>
<name>InputGen_$inputName#process</name>
<parameter>chan </declaration>amp;$inputName#write#ctrl, int[-4294967296, 4294967296] </declaration>amp;$inputName#write#param#val, chan </declaration>amp;process#ctrl</parameter>
<location id="id139" x="-1648" y="-40">
<urgent/>
</location>
<location id="id140" x="-1648" y="-144">
...


It is writing </declaration> where the "&" were... I want to keep the symbol "&" in the sentence. Do you know why it is making that?

And do you also know how to solve the problem with the variable "$inputName"?
 
Old 12-18-2009, 08:45 AM   #5
ghostdog74
Senior Member
 
Registered: Aug 2006
Posts: 2,697
Blog Entries: 5

Rep: Reputation: 244Reputation: 244Reputation: 244
Code:
string='"<template>\n<name>InputGen_$inputName#process<\/name>\n<parameter>chan \&amp;$inputName#write#ctrl, int\[-4294967296, 4294967296\] \&amp;$inputName#write#param#val, chan \&amp;process#ctrl<\/parameter>\n<location id=\"id139\" x=\"-1648\" y=\"-40\">\n<urgent\/>\n<\/location>\n<location id=\"id140\" x=\"-1648\" y=\"-144\">\n<\/location><location id=\"id141\" x=\"-1648\" y=\"-240\">\n<urgent\/>\n<\/location>\n<location id=\"id142\" x=\"-1760\" y=\"-240\">\n<urgent\/>\n<\/location>\n<location id=\"id143\" x=\"-1888\" y=\"-240\">\n<\/location>\n<location id=\"id144\" x=\"-2024\" y=\"-240\">\n<urgent\/>\n<\/location>\n<location id=\"id145\" x=\"-2024\" y=\"-392\">\n<\/location>\n<init ref=\"id145\"\/>\n<transition>\n<source ref=\"id139\"\/>\n<target ref=\"id144\"\/>\n<nail x=\"-2024\" y=\"-40\"\/>\n<\/transition>\n<transition>\n<source ref=\"id140\"\/>\n<target ref=\"id139\"\/>\n<label kind=\"synchronisation\" x=\"-1640\" y=\"-112\">\n$inputName#write#ctrl?<\/label>\n<\/transition>\n<transition>\n<source ref=\"id141\"\/>\n<target ref=\"id140\"\/>\n<label kind=\"select\" x=\"-1640\" y=\"-224\">\ninterval$a : int\[0,10\]<\/label>\n<label kind=\"synchronisation\" x=\"-1640\" y=\"-208\">\n$inputName#write#ctrl"'!'"<\/label>"'

awk -v s="$string" '/declaration/{  gsub(/<declaration>/,"<declaration>"s) } {print} ' file
 
Old 12-18-2009, 08:56 AM   #6
carolflb
Member
 
Registered: Oct 2009
Posts: 40

Original Poster
Rep: Reputation: 15
Hi Ghostdog,

nice to have your help again!

The awk command is printing the changes on my terminal, what do I need to do, so that the changes are saved in the file? Otherwise your solution also doesn't help me...

Last edited by carolflb; 12-18-2009 at 09:27 AM.
 
Old 12-18-2009, 09:30 AM   #7
ghostdog74
Senior Member
 
Registered: Aug 2006
Posts: 2,697
Blog Entries: 5

Rep: Reputation: 244Reputation: 244Reputation: 244
input and output redirection are the very basics of scripting or working with the terminal.
type "man bash" , then type "/" followed by REDIRECTION. otherwise, search google for these terms.
 
Old 12-18-2009, 09:38 AM   #8
carolflb
Member
 
Registered: Oct 2009
Posts: 40

Original Poster
Rep: Reputation: 15
Thanks! Now I could redirect, but the result of your command was inserting the "string" after every occurence of <declaration> in my text. Is there a way for just insert the "string" after the first occurance of </declaration>?
 
Old 12-18-2009, 09:57 AM   #9
berbae
Member
 
Registered: Jul 2005
Location: France
Distribution: Arch Linux
Posts: 540

Rep: Reputation: Disabled
There was a problem with the String declaration, at the end of it, with the ctrl"'!'" part (due to the presence of single quotes).
But apart from that and the "$inputName needs to be substituted by its value" which you didn't mention in the first post, it works on my machine, ie the & appear correctly.
Here is what I get now with your new infos.
I tested the command with this file.txt :
Code:
aaa
bbb
ccc
ddd</declaration>eee
fff
ggg
hhh
ddd</declaration>eee
jjj
kkk
lll
The script is now :
Code:
#!/bin/bash

inputName=ABCDE
String='<template>\n<name>InputGen_'"$inputName"'#process</name>\n<parameter>chan \&amp;'"$inputName"'#write#ctrl, int[-4294967296, 4294967296] \&amp;'"$inputName"'#write#param#val, chan \&amp;process#ctrl</parameter>\n<location id="id139" x="-1648" y="-40">\n<urgent/>\n</location>\n<location id="id140" x="-1648" y="-144">\n</location><location id="id141" x="-1648" y="-240">\n<urgent/>\n</location>\n<location id="id142" x="-1760" y="-240">\n<urgent/>\n</location>\n<location id="id143" x="-1888" y="-240">\n</location>\n<location id="id144" x="-2024" y="-240">\n<urgent/>\n</location>\n<location id="id145" x="-2024" y="-392">\n</location>\n<init ref="id145"/>\n<transition>\n<source ref="id139"/>\n<target ref="id144"/>\n<nail x="-2024" y="-40"/>\n</transition>\n<transition>\n<source ref="id140"/>\n<target ref="id139"/>\n<label kind="synchronisation" x="-1640" y="-112">\n'"$inputName"'#write#ctrl?</label>\n</transition>\n<transition>\n<source ref="id141"/>\n<target ref="id140"/>\n<label kind="select" x="-1640" y="-224">\ninterval$a : int[0,10]</label>\n<label kind="synchronisation" x="-1640" y="-208">\n'"$inputName"'#write#ctrl'"\"'"\!"'\""'</label>'

sed -i.bak "0,/<\/declaration>/s+</declaration>+</declaration>\n${String}+" file.txt
Note that I have suppressed the \ before the [ ] and " characters, in the String declaration (not needed inside the single quotes).

When I run it on my machine I get :
Code:
aaa                                                                
bbb                                                                
ccc                                                                
ddd</declaration>                                                  
<template>                                                         
<name>InputGen_ABCDE#process</name>                                
<parameter>chan &amp;ABCDE#write#ctrl, int[-4294967296, 4294967296] &amp;ABCDE#write#param#val, chan &amp;process#ctrl</parameter>
<location id="id139" x="-1648" y="-40">                                                                                           
<urgent/>                                                                                                                         
</location>                                                                                                                       
<location id="id140" x="-1648" y="-144">                                                                                          
</location><location id="id141" x="-1648" y="-240">                                                                               
<urgent/>                                                                                                                         
</location>                                                                                                                       
<location id="id142" x="-1760" y="-240">
<urgent/>
</location>
<location id="id143" x="-1888" y="-240">
</location>
<location id="id144" x="-2024" y="-240">
<urgent/>
</location>
<location id="id145" x="-2024" y="-392">
</location>
<init ref="id145"/>
<transition>
<source ref="id139"/>
<target ref="id144"/>
<nail x="-2024" y="-40"/>
</transition>
<transition>
<source ref="id140"/>
<target ref="id139"/>
<label kind="synchronisation" x="-1640" y="-112">
ABCDE#write#ctrl?</label>
</transition>
<transition>
<source ref="id141"/>
<target ref="id140"/>
<label kind="select" x="-1640" y="-224">
interval$a : int[0,10]</label>
<label kind="synchronisation" x="-1640" y="-208">
ABCDE#write#ctrl"'!'"</label>eee
fff
ggg
hhh
ddd</declaration>eee
jjj
kkk
lll
As you can see the & are there
and the $inputName variable is substituted by its value (here "ABCDE" for the test)
and the ctrl"'!'" is correct now.

So for me what I present answers to your requirements.
So it seems to me...

Last edited by berbae; 12-18-2009 at 10:11 AM.
 
Old 12-18-2009, 10:25 AM   #10
carolflb
Member
 
Registered: Oct 2009
Posts: 40

Original Poster
Rep: Reputation: 15
Hi berbae,

thanks again for your post. I copied exactly what you posted, but I still get "</declaration>amp" on my machine instead of "&amp". It is really strange. Do you know if this could be cause because of the linux or bash version? Anyways thanks again.
 
Old 12-18-2009, 10:35 AM   #11
ghostdog74
Senior Member
 
Registered: Aug 2006
Posts: 2,697
Blog Entries: 5

Rep: Reputation: 244Reputation: 244Reputation: 244
Quote:
Originally Posted by carolflb View Post
Thanks! Now I could redirect, but the result of your command was inserting the "string" after every occurence of <declaration> in my text. Is there a way for just insert the "string" after the first occurance of </declaration>?
use a flag to indicate you are done
Code:
awk -v s="$string" '
/declaration/ && !f{
  gsub(/<declaration>/,"<declaration>"s)
  f=1
}{print} ' file
why do you need to escape the & in your string??

Last edited by ghostdog74; 12-18-2009 at 10:36 AM.
 
Old 12-19-2009, 11:48 AM   #12
berbae
Member
 
Registered: Jul 2005
Location: France
Distribution: Arch Linux
Posts: 540

Rep: Reputation: Disabled
Some points I could add :

1) I realize from your first post that the end of the String should be ctrl!</label> and not, as I misunderstood, ctrl"'!'"</label>.
So in my proposed code :
ctrl'"\"'"\!"'\""'</label>'
should be replaced by :
ctrl!</label>'

2) It seems that your sed doesn't escaped the & character with the \ before it, as it does on my machine. So for you the & is interpreted laterally to mean the matching string, even with a \ before it.
I don't know exactly why, but probably differences in versions.
For infos I give the versions I used :
GNU bash, version 4.0.35(2)-release
GNU sed version 4.2.1
GNU Awk 3.1.7

3) I looked into the ghostdog74 code, and I could have it to work with these modifications :
Code:
#!/bin/bash                                                                                                                                   

inputName=ABCDE
string="<template>\n<name>InputGen_$inputName#process</name>\n<parameter>chan \\\\&amp;$inputName#write#ctrl, int[-4294967296, 4294967296] \\\\&amp;$inputName#write#param#val, chan \\\\&amp;process#ctrl</parameter>\n<location id=\"id139\" x=\"-1648\" y=\"-40\">\n<urgent/>\n</location>\n<location id=\"id140\" x=\"-1648\" y=\"-144\">\n</location><location id=\"id141\" x=\"-1648\" y=\"-240\">\n<urgent/>\n</location>\n<location id=\"id142\" x=\"-1760\" y=\"-240\">\n<urgent/>\n</location>\n<location id=\"id143\" x=\"-1888\" y=\"-240\">\n</location>\n<location id=\"id144\" x=\"-2024\" y=\"-240\">\n<urgent/>\n</location>\n<location id=\"id145\" x=\"-2024\" y=\"-392\">\n</location>\n<init ref=\"id145\"/>\n<transition>\n<source ref=\"id139\"/>\n<target ref=\"id144\"/>\n<nail x=\"-2024\" y=\"-40\"/>\n</transition>\n<transition>\n<source ref=\"id140\"/>\n<target ref=\"id139\"/>\n<label kind=\"synchronisation\" x=\"-1640\" y=\"-112\">\n$inputName#write#ctrl?</label>\n</transition>\n<transition>\n<source ref=\"id141\"/>\n<target ref=\"id140\"/>\n<label kind=\"select\" x=\"-1640\" y=\"-224\">\ninterval$a : int[0,10]</label>\n<label kind=\"synchronisation\" x=\"-1640\" y=\"-208\">\n$inputName#write#ctrl!</label>"

awk -v s="$string" '
/declaration/ && !f{
  gsub(/<\/declaration>/,"</declaration>\n"s)
  f=1
}{print} ' file.txt
In the string declaration, only the " inside the string are escaped with one \, and & needs four \ on my machine. No need of the single quotes, because then the $inputName is not replaced by its value.
Apart from that I get the same output with my file.txt test file as with the sed command.
Post a follow-up if you find a working solution.
 
  


Reply


Thread Tools Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is Off
HTML code is Off



Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
using linux "LIVE CD" cannot read & copy non english character file,solution? hocheetiong Linux - Newbie 3 12-14-2008 06:03 AM
Adding the character "#" in a file using sed kushalkoolwal Programming 4 07-11-2008 03:59 PM
Insert character by using sed/awk manish_meet_in Linux - General 3 04-05-2007 01:19 PM
Insert after every nth character using sed DoDo1975 Linux - Software 2 01-17-2007 07:59 PM
Insert character into a line with sed? & variables in sed? jago25_98 Programming 5 03-11-2004 07:12 AM


All times are GMT -5. The time now is 05:15 AM.

Main Menu
Advertisement
My LQ
Write for LQ
LinuxQuestions.org is looking for people interested in writing Editorials, Articles, Reviews, and more. If you'd like to contribute content, let us know.
Main Menu
Syndicate
RSS1  Latest Threads
RSS1  LQ News
Twitter: @linuxquestions
Facebook: linuxquestions Google+: linuxquestions
Open Source Consulting | Domain Registration