Running an application by pressing a key on keyboard
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I'm not really sure, but it looks very strange for me. Using GUI the keyboard events are handled by the current application (determined by the focus), this can be hardly modified. You can implement an app to use your own handler, but it will only work when app is focused.
What kind of language do you plan to use?
You obviously don't want "c" to launch anything: if it did, you'd never have typed "Jack"! Usually one uses the Super key (the one with the Windows logo) in conjunction with another key, so I have
Super+f for the command "nautilus /"
Super+h for "nautilus"
With Mate, Xfce, or Gnome, there's a tool available to set up shortcuts in the menu.
If you are using KDE, you can set a shortcut for a particular program by using the menu editor, right clicking on the program, and choosing Properties. I don't know how you set complex commands, though.
Actually I am trying to implement a VOIP application with the help of twinkle software which is linux based.I want to launch this app whenever i press a single key e.g like in case of an intercom.
So my question is whether i need to program such a thing in linux or are there hotkeys or some app in linux to do the same?
As many posters above already wrote: it has nothing to do with Linux. If you're running X11, it depends on your Windowmanager, read the documentation for your Windowmanager. I know Xmonad and fvwm2 very well and can say that for those it is relatively easy to configure a hotkey to launch an application.