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Old 11-02-2011, 10:32 AM   #1
tezarin
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Root system directory is full


Hi all,

Hope this is the right place to post this silly question. I was asked to check the available space of a server which is running Fedora Core release 3 (Heidelberg)
LSB_VERSION="1.3" and when I type df -h command, it shows the below info:

Code:
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/hda1             4.0G  2.4G  1.5G  62% /
/dev/md2               58G   43G   13G  77% /name/test1
/dev/md1               58G   54G  1.3G  98% /name/test2
/dev/md3               58G   33G   23G  59% /name/test3
/dev/md0               48G   37G  8.0G  83% /name/test4
none                  506M     0  506M   0% /dev/shm
/dev/hda3             4.0G   41M  3.8G   2% /tmp
/dev/hda4              10G  2.2G  7.4G  23% /usr
Could someone please tell me how to clean this up and what files do I need to delete? Sorry if this is a silly question, I'm very new to this.

Thanks in advance
 
Old 11-02-2011, 10:41 AM   #2
Bfresh
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Hi!

It seems that you still have 1.5GB available on the partition your root is mounted on:

/dev/hda1 4.0G 2.4G 1.5G 62% /
 
Old 11-02-2011, 10:47 AM   #3
tronayne
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Two good places to look are /tmp and /var/log (although your /tmp doesn't look all the big). Note that /var/log may vary from distribution to distribution -- look for the logs if you don't have /var/log. If you do not have logrotate running, your system logs will be mammoth -- and, yes, you can simply empty them with
Code:
cat > /var/log/logname                (the name of a Really Big Log file)
Ctrl-D
Although it doesn't appear that your user directories are in the root, look at the sizes of user directories, probably in /usr. Users do tend to gobble space and there may be some Really Large Files sitting in their directories; you can use find to locate them:
Code:
cd /usr
find . -type f -size M10
that will give a list of files larger than 10 MB (and then you go holler are folks, suggesting politely that the gzip utility is quite useful).

Hope this helps some.

Last edited by tronayne; 11-02-2011 at 10:56 AM. Reason: Missed the /usr partition; old and blind
 
Old 11-02-2011, 02:03 PM   #4
tezarin
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Thanks tronayne and Bfresh for your replies.

Here is everything in my /var/log directory:

Code:
total 4056
drwx--S---  2 amanda disk        4096 Jan 29  2010 amanda
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root   root       15013 May 29  2005 anaconda.log
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root   root       31044 May 29  2005 anaconda.syslog
-rw-------  1 root   root        2570 Nov  2 10:40 boot.log
-rw-------  1 root   root         195 Oct 30 04:02 boot.log.1
-rw-------  1 root   root        2615 Oct 23 04:02 boot.log.2
-rw-------  1 root   root        2702 Oct 16 04:02 boot.log.3
-rw-------  1 root   root       11494 Oct  9 04:03 boot.log.4
-rw-------  1 root   root      631967 Nov  2 13:19 cron
drwxr-xr-x  2 lp     sys         4096 Oct 30 04:02 cups
-rw-------  1 root   root         157 Feb 25  2010 DEADJOE
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root       15283 Sep 29 22:29 dmesg
drwxr-xr-x  2 root   root        4096 May 29  2005 gdm
drwx------  2 root   root        4096 Oct  7 10:51 httpd
drwx------  2 root   root        4096 May 29  2005 iptraf
-r--------  1 root   root    19136220 Nov  2 13:19 lastlog
drwxr-xr-x  2 root   root        4096 May 29  2005 mail
-rw-------  1 root   root     1198262 Nov  2 13:19 maillog
drwxrwsr-x  2 root   mailman     4096 Oct 30 04:02 mailman
-rw-------  1 root   root     1269058 Nov  2 13:19 messages
-rw-r-----  1 mysql  mysql          0 Oct 30 04:02 mysqld.log
-rw-r-----  1 mysql  mysql          0 Oct 23 04:02 mysqld.log.1
-rw-r-----  1 mysql  mysql          0 Oct 16 04:02 mysqld.log.2
-rw-r-----  1 mysql  mysql          0 Oct  9 04:03 mysqld.log.3
-rw-r-----  1 mysql  mysql          0 Oct  2 04:03 mysqld.log.4
drwx------  2 root   root        4096 Nov  2  2004 ppp
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root       30820 Oct 30 04:02 prelink.log
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root       25808 Nov  2 04:02 rpmpkgs
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root       25808 Oct 29 04:02 rpmpkgs.1
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root       25808 Oct 22 04:04 rpmpkgs.2
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root       25808 Oct 15 04:02 rpmpkgs.3
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root       25808 Oct  8 04:03 rpmpkgs.4
drwxr-xr-x  2 root   root        4096 Nov  2 00:00 sa
drwx------  2 root   root       73728 Nov  2 09:14 samba
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root      144582 Jan 16  2006 scrollkeeper.log
-rw-------  1 root   root        1089 Nov  2 13:19 secure
-rw-------  1 root   root         513 Oct 28 10:28 secure.1
-rw-------  1 root   root        1518 Oct 21 12:40 secure.2
-rw-------  1 root   root         410 Oct 14 10:33 secure.3
-rw-------  1 root   root        1445 Oct  7 10:27 secure.4
-rw-------  1 root   root           0 Oct 30 04:02 spooler
-rw-------  1 root   root           0 Oct 23 04:02 spooler.1
-rw-------  1 root   root           0 Oct 16 04:02 spooler.2
-rw-------  1 root   root           0 Oct  9 04:03 spooler.3
-rw-------  1 root   root           0 Oct  2 04:03 spooler.4
drwxr-x---  2 squid  squid       4096 Jun 26  2006 squid
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root           0 Oct 30 04:02 up2date
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root           0 Oct 23 04:02 up2date.1
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root           0 Oct 16 04:02 up2date.2
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root           0 Oct  9 04:03 up2date.3
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root           0 Oct  2 04:03 up2date.4
drwxr-xr-x  2 root   root        4096 Oct  5  2004 vbox
-rw-rw-r--  1 root   utmp        4992 Nov  2 13:19 wtmp
-rw-rw-r--  1 root   utmp       27648 Oct 31 10:11 wtmp.1
-rw-r--r--  1 root   users      42945 Aug  6  2008 Xorg.0.log
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root       43021 Mar 16  2008 Xorg.0.log.old
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root        3247 Aug 24  2006 yum.log
So if I understand correctly, I can just delete the .log files? Active files should not be deleted just truncate it if I'm not mistaken (I was doing a rm -rf for the .1 .2 .3,... files).

I found these under /usr:

Code:
drwxr-xr-x    2 root root 69632 Jan 27  2010 bin
drwxr-xr-x    2 root root  4096 Aug 12  2004 etc
drwxr-xr-x    2 root root  4096 Aug 12  2004 games
drwxr-xr-x  110 root root 20480 Jan 16  2006 include
drwxr-xr-x    6 root root  4096 Jun 29  2005 kerberos
drwxr-xr-x  115 root root 69632 Oct 22 04:04 lib
drwxr-xr-x   14 root root  4096 Jan 17  2006 libexec
drwxr-xr-x   12 root root  4096 May  5  2008 local
drwx------    2 root root 16384 May 29  2005 lost+found
drwxr-xr-x    2 root root 20480 Jan 27  2010 sbin
drwxr-xr-x  238 root root 12288 Oct  5  2005 share
drwxr-xr-x    3 root root  4096 May 29  2005 src
lrwxrwxrwx    1 root root    10 May 29  2005 tmp -> ../var/tmp
drwxr-xr-x    7 root root  4096 Oct  6  2004 X11R6

But I found a directory /depot/server1/home in which I see directories corresponding to each user. When I ran that command you typed, it was complaining about the format:

Code:
[root@server home]# find . -type f -size 10M
find: invalid -size type `M'
Many users didn't have any files in those directories though, maybe I'm looking in the wrong place?

Thanks in advance for your help
 
Old 11-02-2011, 03:14 PM   #5
tronayne
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Quote:
So if I understand correctly, I can just delete the .log files? Active files should not be deleted just truncate it if I'm not mistaken (I was doing a rm -rf for the .1 .2 .3,... files).
After a week or two, yes you can delete the .1, .2., .3, etc. files if you're short on space. You may however want to add one or two to logrotate -- there are some that are being rotated, those with .1, .2, .3, etc. extensions. The messages log is a good candidate (it's just under 20 MB right now) that is not being rotated.

Go look in /etc. There should be a file, logrotate.conf, and a directory, logrotate.d. If you get into /etc/logrotate.d there should be one or more files that are used to rotate the logs every week to keep the individual sizes down. One of them may be named syslog and you can change it to add /var/log/messages so that log file will get rotated.

Bear in mind that your system may vary; see man logrotate to find out the location for these files if you do not immediately see a /etc/logroate.d directory.

Here's what the file /etc/logrorate.d/syslog looks like on my system:
Code:
/var/log/cron /var/log/debug /var/log/maillog /var/log/messages /var/log/secure /var/log/spooler /var/log/syslog {
    sharedscripts
    postrotate
        /bin/kill -HUP `cat /var/run/syslogd.pid 2>/dev/null` 2>/dev/null || true
    endscript
}
Again, yours may vary and you might need to look around; if your file looks like that, you could simply insert /var/log/messages in the list as above and over the coming weekend it should get rotated and compressed. Don't just copy the above to your system, work with what your system has.

maillog is another good candidate for rotation.

I would leave the files and directories in /usr alone.
Quote:
But I found a directory /depot/server1/home in which I see directories corresponding to each user. When I ran that command you typed, it was complaining about the format:
Looks like /depot/server/home is where your user directories are? Different, that.

It seems that your find utility just doesn't know about the -size 10M argument, so let's kill the same bird with a different stone. Take a look at the manual page for find, particularly the section on size.

You probably want to find files in /depot/server1/home that are bigger that 1 GB:
Code:
find /depot/server1/home -type f -size +10485760c -exec ls -l {} \;
that will show you files larger than 10 MB and their actual size (you may get a large list) to discuss with users. If you add an additional zero (+104857600c), you'll get files larger than 100 MB.

Hope this helps some.
 
Old 11-04-2011, 11:22 AM   #6
tezarin
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tronayne,

Thanks much for your very helpful reply.

This is the info in my syslog:

Quote:
/var/log/messages /var/log/secure /var/log/maillog /var/log/spooler /var/log/boot.log /var/log/cron {
sharedscripts
postrotate
/bin/kill -HUP `cat /var/run/syslogd.pid 2> /dev/null` 2> /dev/null || true
endscript
}
So looks like the messages are already a part of the rotation.

I found the users who happen to have large files on the network and contacted them all. So you are suggesting if they all clean up the space, I will have a clean root directory? This is the output of df -h:

Quote:
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/hda1 4.0G 2.4G 1.5G 63% /
/dev/md2 58G 32G 23G 59% /depot/server1
/dev/md1 58G 54G 1.3G 98% /depot/server2
/dev/md3 58G 33G 23G 59% /depot/server3
/dev/md0 48G 37G 8.0G 83% /depot/server4
none 506M 0 506M 0% /dev/shm
/dev/hda3 4.0G 41M 3.8G 2% /tmp
/dev/hda4 10G 2.2G 7.4G 23% /usr
These are everything I have under the root directory:

Quote:
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Jan 5 2011 boot
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 4096 May 29 2005 depot
drwxr-xr-x 8 root root 6400 Sep 29 22:30 dev
drwxr-xr-x 91 root root 12288 Nov 4 09:20 etc
drwxr-xr-x 13 root root 4096 Sep 28 2010 home
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Aug 12 2004 initrd
drwxr-xr-x 10 root root 4096 Jan 20 2010 lib
drwx------ 2 root root 16384 May 29 2005 lost+found
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Sep 29 22:30 media
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Mar 23 2005 misc
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Aug 12 2004 mnt
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Jun 16 2005 opt
dr-xr-xr-x 90 root root 0 Sep 29 18:28 proc
drwxr-x--- 21 root root 4096 Aug 19 08:15 root
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 12288 Jan 14 2010 sbin
drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 0 Sep 29 18:28 selinux
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4096 Jul 24 2008 share
drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Aug 12 2004 srv
drwxr-xr-x 10 root root 0 Sep 29 18:28 sys
drwxrwxrwt 4 root root 8192 Nov 4 04:02 tmp
drwxr-xr-x 15 root root 4096 Aug 13 2009 usr
drwxr-xr-x 24 root root 4096 Jul 24 2008 var
Thanks in advance
 
Old 11-04-2011, 12:29 PM   #7
tronayne
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Well, your root partition is a little on the small side -- you do have 1.5G free, but over time that ain't a whole lot of wiggle room. You may -- may -- want to consider a larger drive and copying or reinstalling your existing system to it (which is not a trivial task). I typically make the root partition at least 10G (and I do not use a separate partition for /tmp); that results in about 7.5G of disk use. However, as long as you keep an eye on free space, you can probably get away with leaving well enough alone.

It's always a good thing (always) to keep an eye on the space users gobble up -- folks do tend to get and hang on to big stuff "just in case I might need it some day" and it never hurts to monitor that. Their use has nothing to do with your root space, but the day will come that somebody's going to fill up a partition and all heck will break loose (trust me: been there, they did that more than once). Also, have a look-see at what's in /tmp -- folks may be stashing big stuff in there and let it sit there forever. Oh, yeah, teach them about the benefits of gzip.

One thing you can do that will save you a little space is look at /etc/logrotate.conf. Mine looks like this (your will probably vary):
Code:
# /etc/logrotate.conf
#
# logrotate is designed to ease administration of systems that generate large
# numbers of log files.  It allows automatic rotation, compression, removal, and
# mailing of log files.  Each log file may be handled daily, weekly, monthly, or
# when it grows too large.
#
# logrotate is normally run daily from root's crontab.
#
# For more details, see "man logrotate".

# rotate log files weekly:
weekly

# keep 4 weeks worth of backlogs:
rotate 4

# create new (empty) log files after rotating old ones:
create

# uncomment if you want to use the date as a suffix of the rotated file
#dateext

# uncomment this if you want your log files compressed:
#compress

# some packages install log rotation information in this directory:
include /etc/logrotate.d

# Rotate /var/log/wtmp:
/var/log/wtmp {
    monthly
    create 0664 root utmp
        minsize 1M
    rotate 1
}

# Rotate /var/log/btmp:
/var/log/btmp {
    monthly
    create 0600 root root
    rotate 1
}

# Note that /var/log/lastlog is not rotated.  This is intentional, and it should
# not be.  The lastlog file is a database, and is also a sparse file that takes
# up much less space on the drive than it appears.

# system-specific logs may be also be configured below:
Of particular interest are the lines
Code:
# uncomment this if you want your log files compressed:
#compress
If yours is like this, uncomment (remove the #) from compress. That will cause the rotated log files to be compressed with gzip; ain't much, but every little bit counts.

You know, disk drives are cheap -- a 500G drive for the system and another 500G drive for users is not a huge investment (and, no, you don't want to use terabyte drives yet; too new for longevity and reliability statistics to be meaningful). You now have a good statistical base to work from (your existing disk use as given by df -h) to give you a good starting place for adding or changing a drive or two.

Hope this helps some.
 
Old 11-04-2011, 02:47 PM   #8
tezarin
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Hi tronayne,

Thanks again for your helpful reply. I looked at my /etc/logrotate.conf and it reads #compress, so I will remove the # sign.

Since users are using that machine all the time and I have never done anything like this, I'm not sure how I can replace the drive with a bigger one and not sure how to re-partition the existing drive. I know the person who put this box in service said you have to keep cleaning the root directory but he didn't tell me how I can do that. I constantly truncate the active logs and remove the .x files but that doesn't empty much space.

I would really appreciate it if you help me with this

Thanks
 
Old 11-04-2011, 10:00 PM   #9
tollingalong
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http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/how-do-...sd-filesystem/
du : Disk usage

This shows the disk usage for all the files and directories (folders) in /var:

du -a /var | sort -n -r | head -n 10
1008372 /var
313236 /var/www
253964 /var/log
192544 /var/lib
152628 /var/spool
152508 /var/spool/squid
136524 /var/spool/squid/00
95736 /var/log/mrtg.log
74688 /var/log/squid
62544 /var/cache

You might need to sudo or su in order to see some directories.
Good luck.
 
Old 11-07-2011, 12:42 PM   #10
tezarin
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Thanks tollingalong,
Here's the output I'm gettting:

1040600 /var
870180 /var/spool
862408 /var/spool/clientmqueue
99196 /var/lib
65952 /var/lib/rpm
45012 /var/lib/rpm/Packages
41332 /var/log
21484 /var/log/cups
16516 /var/www
16100 /var/lib/imap
 
Old 12-01-2011, 12:26 PM   #11
tezarin
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Hi tronayne and everyone,

I have asked all ths user to move their files from the /name/test2. But the root directory % didn't go down and it even went up. Is there any way someone please help me and tell me what else to delete to empty up free space on the root directory?

This is my biggest fear that one day the root directory gets to 100% and the machine (therefore the LDAP server, DHCP server and everything else) goes down for good. Thank you in advance

Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/hda1 4.0G 2.7G 1.2G 70% /
/dev/md2 58G 13G 43G 23% /name/test1
/dev/md1 58G 54G 1.3G 98% /name/test2
/dev/md3 58G 33G 23G 59% /name/test3
/dev/md0 48G 37G 7.9G 83% /name/test4
none 506M 0 506M 0% /dev/shm
/dev/hda3 4.0G 41M 3.8G 2% /tmp
/dev/hda4 10G 2.2G 7.4G 23% /usr
 
Old 12-01-2011, 10:25 PM   #12
tollingalong
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Do the following:
du -a /name/test2 | sort -n -r | head -n 10
Please note the da -a <directory> means the directory you wish to find the largest files.

That should tell you which files are largest in the specific location you're in need.
If you cannot find enough files there is always the possibility a process is holding onto a file.
 
Old 12-02-2011, 09:44 AM   #13
tronayne
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Hiya.

You do realize that the content of /name/test1 (test2, test3 and test4) have nothing to do with what's in the root partition -- they're mounted partitions and have wads of space available.

If I remember correctly, your user's home directories are in /home? That's your best candidate for relocation if that's so -- the size of user's home directories never goes down, only up and it's only a matter of time...

One candidate you have for moving /home is /dev/hda3, a 4.0G partition currently mounted as /tmp which appears to only be using 41M with 3.8G free. To consider doing that, you would want to do this (your size will be different, of course); the -sh shows a summary in human-readable form:
Code:
su -
du -sh /home
2.6G    /home
If this sounds good to you, let us know and we can walk you through how to do it; it's not difficult but has to be done step-by-step.

Bottom line, however, is that you're going to have to bite the bullet and add a drive or two and/or redo your system with larger partition sizes sooner or later. You do have time for now but the day will come when things get filled up, sorry.

Hope this helps some.
 
Old 12-02-2011, 12:52 PM   #14
tezarin
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Thanks tronayne and tollingalong for your replies.

Tronayne,
I ran the df -h command again:

Code:
[root@home]# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/hda1             4.0G  2.7G  1.2G  71% /
/dev/md2               58G   13G   43G  23% /name/test1
/dev/md1               58G  486M   55G   1% /name/test2
/dev/md3               58G   33G   23G  59% /name/test3
/dev/md0               48G   37G  7.9G  83% /name/test4
none                  506M     0  506M   0% /dev/shm
/dev/hda3             4.0G   41M  3.8G   2% /tmp
/dev/hda4              10G  2.2G  7.4G  23% /usr
I understand that those drives are not parts of the root partition, but in /name/test2 there are all the users listed. Not sure why the root directory gets full if the users are in a different mounted drive.

The command you asked me to run for /home returned only 6.0M so I don't think it's the correct user directory:

Code:
[root@home]# du -sh /home
6.0M    /home
Where else should I be looking for large files?

Thanks in advance
 
Old 12-03-2011, 10:11 AM   #15
tronayne
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I've attached a file, biggest.sh, that you can use to find... uh, big files.

Download the file then enter
Code:
make biggest
you'll have an executable utility named biggest.

Running it without arguments will show how to use it:
Code:
Usage: biggest.sh -fHh -l <nn> -s <nnn> -t <dir> -v fs\n
                  -f = follow links
                  -H = Full documentation
                  -h = Usage brief
                  -l = Displays <nn> lines
                  -s = Minimum file size is <nnn>
                  -t = Temp/work directory, <dir>
                  -v = Edit (vi) file list
                  fs = Required filesystem argument.
What you can do is
Code:
su -
biggest /
and that will show you large files throughout the file system (you can modify the minimum size with the -s option). You'll need to play with it a little to get a feel for what it's going to show you.

You really do have to realize that you're going to have to bite the bullet and work on reinstalling your system with a larger partition for root (more on the order of 10G or more) -- you don't have to do that as an emergency (hey, 71% is still 30%-ish free, eh), but you will have to do it sooner or later and it might be a good time to learn how before you hit the wall. I give root 15G and have 7G used (and /home is a mounted partition).

Hope this helps some.
 
  


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