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If your disk is larger than 2 TB or is 4KN format then you need to use a GPT disk label. If it is smaller and uses 512 or 512e (ugh!) format then you can stay with msdos. This is partly independent of whether you boot using BIOS or EFI. Also, most EFI systems have a compatibility mode to support legacy option ROMs or a BIOS bootloader. BIOS is dying. It's a good time to switch.
I don't use LMDE so I'm not sure about it but you should have an option when installing to use UEFI/GPT or an MBR install. You can use GPT partitioning with a standard MBR install which requires creating a separate BIOS boot partition. Might check the LMDE site for info.
If you enable in BIOS booting both UEFI and legacy booting removable media won't be a problem.
As for installing, UEFI needs efi boot partition. That is actually FAT32 boot partition with ef00 partition type, and using a GPT partition table. I can't provide further information regarding LMDE as I use arch.
I'm not completely sure, but I think gdisk can convert from MBR to GPT without data loss. For making GPT partitions you need to use compatible tools (for example gdisk instead of fdisk).
You can convert an MBR to GPT without loss of data. Read http://www.rodsbooks.com/ and install gptdisk. Read everything there again, then read this website and you should be able to get your new computer working. As smallpond said, BIOS and MBR are dying, and you'll have to learn UEFI sooner or later, so it might as well be sooner.