Dunno what system you're running so we dunno if you're using Lilo or grub and it's possible that the problem is there but I don't think so as / is found but not able to be mounted.
You imply the file system has been repaired but still won't boot.
Based on your information I don't see where anything has been repaired.
I myself have had a similar problem in the past due to broken files.
It may not be necessary to try and repair them from a live cd as the error states you can login as root and do repairs.
It isn't that hard you just have to know where / is mounted and fsck should be a part of your system already.
In my case / is hda2.
Login as root and then type fsck -hda2 [or wherever you have /] and strike the enter key.
Answer the questions with y or n and y is probably going to be the safe choice.
After it completes note again what the error stated...
*** Disabling security enforcement for system recovery.
*** run 'setenforce 1' to reenable.
Reboot and let us know if anything worked or not.