No, there is no registry.
Linux users generally look at the Windows registry with interested disbelief. Sort of like watching an inevitable car crash occur in slow motion.
What you might want to investigate are the various configuration files in /etc
These are usually text files, often with very different approaches, which set out the various options and varioables. Some are large and strange (Samba), some small (fstab), but usually you need a native guide or some documentation to understand them. Fortunately, they are almost always well documented. Unfortunately, there isn't any particular standard, as they often represent wildly different applications with different purposes.