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Hrm... I think that a lot of the partitioning is done based on preference and need. Bare mininum should be two partitions (and they don't even have to be primary in some cases), / and Swap.
Anything that you don't make a partition for and assign the mount point to that you want should fall into the / partition. I, personally, only have three partitions. They are /boot, /, and Swap (and you are right about that being 2x RAM, although it is now contested for thoes with high end systems with a lot of RAM, but 2x is safe). Some prefer to have a separate partition for /home. I suppose if you were running a network server or something, you may want to separate a lot of the directories, but for a desktop, I don't see much need.
/boot is a good idea to have a separate partition if you wish to use another boot manager (I use BootMagic), so you can have the bootloader installed to that partition instead of the MBR.
Well, for desktop use, swap, /boot, / and /home is enough. If you got 512Mb of RAM, then that size for the SWAP partition may be enough (if you want to suspend to disk). So rounding up a lot, we get 1Gb for boot+swap. I'm not a RedHat user, but I've the impression that it may be huge, so I'll give 20Gb for / and the rest for /home. Leaving about 5Gb at the end without partitioning wouldn't hurt in the case that you want to experiment other distributions in the future, but in that case you have to create an extended partition and put there /home.
/ is the root. Everything is under that. In particular:
/boot: You HAVE a directory like this. There you have your kernel other stuff required by your system to boot. Now, some people prefers to have this in a separated partition which is mounted in the /boot directory. This allows a little more control and improves security.
/home: You also have this directory. It contains the user accounts. Again, some people (like me) prefer to have it in a different partition because it allows more control. In my case, I experiment a lot with Linux, so if I decide to delete one distribution and install a second one, I can delete the / partition without any problems, because my documents are safe in the /home partition.