When you deleted the partition, the existing partitions with a higher number were re-named.
What you need to do is to boot a LiveCD and run:
Then you will have to mount the partitions that were re-named and edit the /etc/fstab file to reflect the new names.
You then will have to fix your bootloader.
You don't say which bootloader you are using, but if you are using grub, then you will have to edit the /boot/grub/menu.lst file.
With grub2, update-grub should take care of the problem.