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I think that with most Live CDs you can install programs such as the Firefox flash plugin for your use during the session. However, as you point out, this will be gone next time you boot the Live CD.
A few distros, such as Puppy Linux, allow you to save the session from a Live CD to disk. Next time you boot the Puppy Live CD it will automatically locate the saved session data on disk. So your install would survive across sessions. To my knowledge most distros do NOT work like Puppy and do not save session data in this manner across sessions.
in this case most distros should enable flashplayer for the browsers, because it is a necessary plugins.
Some distros would simply not do it because of licensing issues. And I don't see how the flashplayer is necessary, your system will work fine without it.
But you can always remaster a live-medium with flashplayer, or make one for your self.
Maybe I'm wrong or this is a case of my personal preference.
In my opinion a Live-CD is not meant as an alternative to an installed Linux-distribution. When it comes to multimedia you'll need some performance, which a Live-system often cannot provide. Beyond that you'll need the kernelmodules for your hardware, special codecs for multimediafiles or several players for various mediaformats.
So it is not worth searching for a suitable Live-CD (although there are some for this purposes) since every mainstream distribution when installed on your computer meets all your requirements for multimedia.
I would look at this from different angle.
1) Some Live CDs are specifically made for data rescue. These do not require flash and developers will (should) never include flash there.
2) Flash plugin is proprietary software. If developers put it into Live CD, this will spoil their relationships with apologetics of free software. And, as it was mentioned, can lead to licensing issues.
Having tried a bunch of Live Linuxes, I had no problems with flashplugins. It was either included into distro, or easily autoinstalled.
If you are missing flash plugin from certain Live CD, you should talk to developers or re-master Live CD for your own needs.