Python is just an interpreted language written in C. Python is the easiest programming language in linix, i think that it is easier than BASIC, and Shell Script. it has a interactive interpreter making it easier to start programming
The language used by Linux is many. If you are talking about the programming language compiled apps are written in its C or C++. Some people also consider Shell Scripting good, for small programs that can be seen by everyone. lisp although i don't use it is used to extend some applications because. perl is a step between c, and shell scripting.