The .tar.gz is the source code. Binaries would generally have .deb or .rpm. It is called a gzipped tar archive. To extract it, run tar -xzvf source.tar.gz
. You will then have a directory containing the source. To compile it, you will use the g++ c++ compiler, or something similar. g++ is usually used on gnu systems. The general way to compile from source is to run
# make install
You should read the readme packaged with the source to determine if that is correct. Also, you may not want to run the last line if you don't want to install it on your system.
You can use whichever IDE or text editor you'd like to edit source files. I personally prefer emacs.