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When Linux shuts down it sets records in each partition to indicate that the partition was umounted cleanly. Maybe you had a power failure, or booted without issueing a shutdown command so that the parttion was not umounted cleanly.
When Linux is booted it checks for clean umount records in each partition. If it does not find them it runs fsck against each partition to try to fix the file system. fsck usually works. Answer yes to any questions fsck asks you about fixing something in the broken partition. When fsck has finished fixing the partition(s) then boot will continue.
fsck stores any file fragments that it cannot identify in the lost+found directory.
So after boot finishes check lost+found.
If the partition is so badly broken that fsck cannot fix it then you are in deep trouble. You will have to reformat the partition using mkfs and restore its contents from your backup files. If you don't have backup files then you will have to reinstall Linux.
If you have a working Linux box available see:
Otherwise use Google to find the man pages on the Internet.