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I had always thought the limit was 64 but a quick search on a couple of sites mentioned 224. I've never confirmed either number. AFAIK it is a filesystem limitation. Is there any reason you can not use a directory?
I may be able to use a directory but the problem is that the floppy is to be used on an existing Windows platform which expects all the files in the root directory. It would require a change to this system which may be difficult.
After playing around and doing some additional research:
Using a standard windows formated floppy disk:
With standard 8.3 naming convention I could copy 222 files. I assume that the hidden files io.sys and msdos.sys would make it 224.
Coping approx 25.3 character names I could only create 56 files. And so If long filename support is enabled, then each file can use more than one file or directory entry.
From what I've discovered the 512 number is for a FAT16 root directory on a hard drive and not a floppy disk. I've also read where FAT32 can have 65,536 (based on 8.3 naming convention) but I'm not going to confirm this. AFAIK you can not format a floppy disk as FAT32.