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In order for postfix to receive email from the internet, don't you have to have that mail domain registered with dns? Have you made an **MX** record with DNS? If you are using a dynamic internet connection, you must register your DNS and MX records with a DNS registrar, and update them every time they change.
I use http://dyndns.org They offer a free account and utilites to update your DNS record (and MX mailserver record).
Postfix will automatically relay outbound emails through your ISP's mailserver, if you set it up that way. This may be why your outbound traffic is getting out, but inbound traffic has to know the DNS/to/IP translation to get to you.
Do you have webmin installed? Webmin makes it easy to see all your postfix settings, laid out in a nice gui. That's how I set mine up. You can see and adjust your name, hostname vs domain name from there.
I guess you could do it the old fashioned way, and edit the conf file. I like to use webmin whenever I can. :>
Stupid question, but did you restart Postfix after setting the domain name in the config file? Most servers don't automaticcaly detect changes and need to be restarted. Also, check your mail log, the mail might be getting there, but is being rejected for some reason (you're maillog is usually /var/log/maillog).