Sorry I'll try to turn off -verbose
I was just trying to give you as much information as possible, with the information you provided.
I doubt your ISP is blocking incoming requests requests on port 53. I know the common ports for blocking and the reasons behind them. As I mentioned before its more likely that the private network, your remote linux box is on, is blocking direct connections to DNS servers on the internet, as this is much more common than ISPs blocking your use of port 53. (Not saying they aren't just that it would be unusual.)
Sadly DSL reports
may be a better source of a port blocking list for your ISP than the Tier 1 tech support. Tier 1 tends to fail badly when it comes to uncommon technical questions.
If you would like a tool for determining where/if port 53 is blocked you can do a TCP syn packet traceroute from linux with;
traceroute -T -p 53 [DNS SERVER IP]
To do the same from your windows box you will need something like tracetcp
tcping.exe [DNS SERVER IP] 53
Yes, DNS is normally UDP port 53 however it fails over to TCP as a back up, so if UDP port 53 is blocked then TCP would also be blocked.
You could also try to telnet from the windows box to the DNS server on port 53, it should connect then hang.
telnet [DNS SERVER IP] 53