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For example there is a bonded network config on Linux that will let you load balance on multiple NICs. The idea being that by having the traffic go across different interfaces you'll end up with more throughput. (i.e. 2 GigE ethernet cards are twice as fast as just 1 [not really linear this way but it is the general idea]).
You could have load balancing on your web servers so that all the traffic doesn't bog down the resources on one web server but rather gets even distributed among the servers. This can be done in software like Apache or with load balancing appliances like BigIP F5.
Usually load balancing when discussed is for servers rather than just the NICs but it is such a broad term its context is important when being discussed. Another server based load balancing solution is Oracle RAC wherein the same database is shared by multiple hosts and you determine which traffic attaches to which host.
Often the load balancing also involves a redundancy. If you have bonded NICs and one fails typically the traffic will automatically go to the NIC that is still available. Similarly if you have load balanced Web Servers, Oracle RAC servers or the like if one of the servers goes down often there is a recognition of this so that all the traffic gets distributed to the servers that are still up.