Linux - NewbieThis Linux forum is for members that are new to Linux.
Just starting out and have a question?
If it is not in the man pages or the how-to's this is the place!
Welcome to LinuxQuestions.org, a friendly and active Linux Community.
You are currently viewing LQ as a guest. By joining our community you will have the ability to post topics, receive our newsletter, use the advanced search, subscribe to threads and access many other special features. Registration is quick, simple and absolutely free. Join our community today!
Note that registered members see fewer ads, and ContentLink is completely disabled once you log in.
If you have any problems with the registration process or your account login, please contact us. If you need to reset your password, click here.
Having a problem logging in? Please visit this page to clear all LQ-related cookies.
Introduction to Linux - A Hands on Guide
This guide was created as an overview of the Linux Operating System, geared toward new users as an exploration tour and getting started guide, with exercises at the end of each chapter.
For more advanced trainees it can be a desktop reference, and a collection of the base knowledge needed to proceed with system and network administration. This book contains many real life examples derived from the author's experience as a Linux system and network administrator, trainer and consultant. They hope these examples will help you to get a better understanding of the Linux system and that you feel encouraged to try out things on your own.
Click Here to receive this Complete Guide absolutely free.
I think! But the xp was on a primary partition, the rest on extended logical ones.
I removed /dev/sda1 and installed various "linux" on /dev/sda1, sooner or later they complained- usually to the effect that the new system had remounted as read only and any additional software (especially large installs) would trigger this remount.
I did not want to create a new partition table as this would destroy any reference to the debian installation. I assumed that the sda1 partition is recorded as xp, so I put a small partition on as sda1 and formated it to ext4 (perhaps a mistake) and used the rest of the space as usual.
All was fine until I did another large update-
(distro is Ubuntu-mate and updated libreoffice via the bootique (daft name, even when spelt right))
It remounted read only and would not shutdown, much as before.
Forced a shutdown and rebooted to the rescue menu, ran fsck and fix broken packages options.
All seemed well when I resumed the boot until I ran synaptic and looked for the sources, it complained again and had to force a shutdown.
When I rebooted, fdisk -l listed 15 /dev/ram occurrences
The only time you have a problem with 'readonly' during boots is deliberate:
1. the system boots with root mounted read only to allow the system to potentially repair damage.
2. if the filesystem requires repair, you DON'T mount the disk as the buffers in memory no longer necessarily match the disk filesystem structure. You force a reboot after the repair succeeds (and it may take multiple tries first) without dismounting.
3. if the disk doesn't need repair, then it is remounted read/write and continues.
It does n't boot read only it experiences a problem and remounts the file system (all under /) as read only then appears to hang. The problem occurred when updating libreoffice. The 'repair broken packages' routine in the boot options seems to have worked and libreoffice appears to be working also the source ppa for libreoffice is installed.
Disk /dev/sda: 186.3 GiB, 200049647616 bytes, 390721968 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0xa12ba12b
Device Boot Start End Sectors Size Id Type
/dev/sda1 2048 1026047 1024000 500M 83 Linux
/dev/sda2 103153662 390721535 287567874 137.1G 5 Extended
/dev/sda3 * 1026048 103151047 102125000 48.7G 83 Linux
/dev/sda5 103153664 382339071 279185408 133.1G 83 Linux
/dev/sda6 382341120 390721535 8380416 4G 82 Linux swap / Solaris
Partition table entries are not in disk order.
fred@fred-desktop:~$ ls -l /dev/ram*
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 1, 0 May 29 10:42 /dev/ram0
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 1, 1 May 29 10:42 /dev/ram1
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 1, 10 May 29 10:42 /dev/ram10
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 1, 11 May 29 10:42 /dev/ram11
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 1, 12 May 29 10:42 /dev/ram12
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 1, 13 May 29 10:42 /dev/ram13
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 1, 14 May 29 10:42 /dev/ram14
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 1, 15 May 29 10:42 /dev/ram15
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 1, 2 May 29 10:42 /dev/ram2
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 1, 3 May 29 10:42 /dev/ram3
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 1, 4 May 29 10:42 /dev/ram4
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 1, 5 May 29 10:42 /dev/ram5
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 1, 6 May 29 10:42 /dev/ram6
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 1, 7 May 29 10:42 /dev/ram7
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 1, 8 May 29 10:42 /dev/ram8
brw-rw---- 1 root disk 1, 9 May 29 10:42 /dev/ram9
It is not usual to see listings for /dev/ram under fdisk. Also there are a lot listings (29) when I run mount, including 10 for cgroup, eg,
pstore on /sys/fs/pstore type pstore (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/freezer type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,freezer,nsroot=/)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/cpu,cpuacct type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,cpu,cpuacct,nsroot=/)
cgroup on /sys/fs/cgroup/devices type cgroup (rw,nosuid,nodev,noexec,relatime,devices,nsroot=/)
First, your sda1 was not tagged as XP, there really is no such thing.
Second, partitions can fill up and cause crashes as the one you got during large applications installation when lots of temporary files are created and root partition is almost full. Also, it is possible you ran out of inodes, df -i will tell.