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Introduction to Linux - A Hands on Guide
This guide was created as an overview of the Linux Operating System, geared toward new users as an exploration tour and getting started guide, with exercises at the end of each chapter.
For more advanced trainees it can be a desktop reference, and a collection of the base knowledge needed to proceed with system and network administration. This book contains many real life examples derived from the author's experience as a Linux system and network administrator, trainer and consultant. They hope these examples will help you to get a better understanding of the Linux system and that you feel encouraged to try out things on your own.
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Just in case :
the COMPLETE & DETAILED procedure :
First, visit the Linux section of the nVidia driver download area and get the following two files:
NVIDIA_GLX-1.0-4191.src.rpm (at top of page)
NVIDIA_kernel-1.0-4191.src.rpm (at bottom of page)
Save these files to your machine. Now, open up a terminal (konsole, gnome-terminal) and become root (also called superuser). Change to the directory containing the packages and install them with:
rpm -i NVIDIA* (or rpm -ivh NVIDIA* for verbose output and to print hash marks [#] indicating installation progress)
Since these are only source packages, we haven't actually installed any drivers yet, we've just placed the necessary files onto the system to get us started. To verify that everything is where it should be, issue the command:
You should see two files listed: NVIDIA_GLX.spec and NVIDIA_kernel.spec These two files simply tell RPM how to create packages using the source files. These source files were installed into /usr/src/redhat/SOURCES. Once you're satisfied everything went according to plan:
This is the directory the source packages were installed into. /usr/src also contains the source code for the Linux kernel itself (assuming it was selected when you installed Psyche). Once inside the /usr/src/redhat directory, you might want to take a look around and see if you can get a feel for what the various directories are for. If you aren't comfortable with that, don't worry, it's not necessary. Next, the hard part (if you've been exploring, before you proceed make sure your working directory is /usr/src/redhat/SPECS – you can use the pwd command to display this for you):
rpmbuild -bb NVIDIA* (“rpmbuild” should be self-explanatory, the bb means “build binary” -- man rpmbuild at the console or #rpmbuild into Konqueror's address bar or a command box for more information)
It should only take a few minutes for the two packages to be built. You'll see information scrolling by as your request is carried out. Don't worry if you don't know what any of it means, since not many people do. Once the build process finishes, you're almost there. Now, to install the packages we just built:
cd /usr/src/redhat/RPMS/i386/ (this is where rpmbuild puts the packages after they are ready)
rpm -Uvh NVIDIA*
RPM will process for a moment, indicating its progress with hash marks and by displaying a percentage. If all has gone well, you should see both packages install and then be returned to a command prompt. At this point, I would suggest you view the README located on nVidia's website, as it contains a great deal of information about using, troubleshooting and customizing the nVidia drivers. For the impatient, I'll include here the minimum changes you need to make to your system to get the drivers working.
At this point the drivers themselves are installed and ready to go. Now all we have to do is tell XFree86 we want to use them instead of its own drivers. Since this requires making changes to the (vitally important!) XFree86 configuration file, we'll make a backup copy of it before going any further. This is extremely important! Without a clean working copy of this file, you will not be able to access your desktop.
Now if you manage to mangle XF86Config you can copy XF86Config-original to XF86Config and start over with a known-good configuration. For those of us who aren't vi or emacs aficionados, Red Hat has included an excellent screen-based text editor called pico. Considering the number of capable and friendly GUI-based editors included with modern Linux distributions, you might question the need for using or even being aware of console-based alternatives -- until, like now, you're doing something that has the potential to render your GUI unavailable. As a general rule, you should always have a familiar console-based editor available for just such times. There are few things more frustrating than needing to make a simple change to a configuration file and being stumped because you have no idea how to do so from the command line. That being said, still as root user, issue the command:
pico -w /etc/X11/XF86Config (always use the -w switch with configuration files, since it prevents pico from applying any line wrapping and thus mangling the file)
Locate the line containing Driver "nv" and replace it with Driver "nvidia". To search in pico you press CTRL+W and enter the search term (shortcuts are displayed at the bottom of the interface). Now, find the section called Module and make sure Load "glx" is one of the entries. If not, add it to the list. Also in the Module section, remove or comment out any lines that contain Load "dri" and Load "GLcore". (You comment out a line by prefacing it with a hash mark, as in #Load "GLcore".)
That's it! You should be ready to go. Save all your work, and press CTRL-ALT-BACKSPACE to restart the X server. If all went well, you should see the nVidia splash screen pop up briefly and then be presented with the standard GDM login screen. Once your desktop has loaded, press ALT+F2 to bring up a command box and type in tuxracer (this assumes TuxRacer is installed, of course) to test your new drivers. If something has gone wrong along the way, make sure the nVidia packages are installed correctly and that your changes to XF86Config are correct (now you'll see why I pointed out the need for a backup file and an easy-to-use editor!).
rpm -qa |grep NVIDIA will query the RPM database for any installed package with "NVIDIA" in its name (as always, case matters). If you don't see both packages listed, something has gone wrong. Back up to the section that explains building the packages and try again.
wow i didnt know i had to do some of that, now dont i look stupid :P blame it on my newbie status.
ive installed the RPM's, because when i do rpm -i NVIDIA* is says they are both installed. But i dont have those files in /usr/src/redhat/SPECS. When i tried to uninstall them, with rpm -e NVIDIA* (is that the right command?) it said they werent installed?? its like a never ending loop, try installing and they already are, try uninstalling and they arent there. im confused?
ok i have found out how to uninstall the RPM's, i have to use the database name (?) which is NVIDIA_GLX instead of the full filename. Im currently trying to uninstall it, but it has been on
--- The above files are apparently saved files from a
--- non-NVIDIA distribution (possibly MESA) that were
--- put aside while the NVIDIA rpm was installed.
--- They are now being restored.
for quite some time. I best not end it though, i will give it some more time to see what happens.
i double-clicked the rpm's in KDE rather than running the terminal command, so i am assuming that is why it did not install properly (but im probably wrong). Hopefully if i follow your instructions perfectly, instead of trying to do things my own way, it will work. Sorry about the bad post i gave btw, wasnt very informative and was wrong.
hmm still stuck on that message.... any ideas? i think i will do a search of it...
Last edited by charlie123; 01-10-2003 at 05:32 PM.
No one seems stupid when not knowing something.
Each of us have to learn.
Fist of all, to get out from your infinite loop (I used to get the same problem as well) go get Synaptic on the website of Connectiva. This marvellous graphical Install-Update-Restore-Delete tool will resolve your installed-but-not-installed-packages issue.
Uninstall completely those though-installed-but-not-really-RPMs via Synaptic tool and restart the whole sequence as described in my previous post.
ok they have finally uninstalled without having to use synaptic. i did the rpm -i NVIDIA* bit, they installed, but there was no *.spec file in /usr/src/redhat/SPECS. i am assuming this is because i did not have the exact files you said, i had the ones the NVChooser told me to get. Gonna download the ones u said now....
hey yea, i did exactly what you said, downloaded those files, and it worked! one question i have, apart from a fancy blink of a splash screen when it starts, what other benefits will i notice? Will i now be able to put the colours on 24bit, cos last time i did that X couldnt start, so i had to restore the XF86Config.
anyway, yea im gonna start calling you god.
p.s. where did you read about the little bits, like blocking out those Load 'dri' and that? do you pick up bits of info like that with experience or did you get it from a tutorial when you were installing them?
hey i'm pretty sure yo figured it our but you have add a vari to enable age 4x
FSAA, AA, Side band adddress, and fastwrite
for 4x agp ( if you card support it ) go to /etc/X11/XF86config ( XF86Config-4
and then goto the place where you turn your driver on ( nv to nvidia or vesa to nvidia ) then goto the last line and type in
Option "NvAgp" "3"
Go into your home dir and click on view in the menubar and then show hidden files open up you bashrc that is .bashrc file and under .bashrc type this in
export __GL_MODE_FSAA= what ever option from 1 through 5
sda umm goto your.... goto your.... dam i forgot well i help with the little knowledge i do have :-D peace
The purpose of those threads are to share info helping everyone to improve knowledge and, in a way, the satisfaction to be part of the free community
Further, I changed my Gfx card inbetween ... and just in case there would still be a doubt in some minds, ATI is nicely coming back against nVidia !
See for yourself :
I moved this weekend from nVidia to ATI Radeon 9700Pro.
My purpose is to share how I proceeded, it could maybe help some of you.
1/ Login as ROOT
2/ Download the ATI rpm package which will be further needed for installation : http://pdownload.mii.instacontent.n...-2.5.1.i586.rpm
3/ Uninstall previous Gfx Card drivers & packages (via command rpm -e package_name.rpm)
If the uninstallation doesn't seem to occur smoothly or incompletely : use Synaptic (available from Connectiva website) to remove the packages.
4/ Launch the System Settings -> Display and choose the RedHat native ATI 9700 driver in VESA mode
5/ Shut down
6/ Remove previous Gfx card (unplug the power to prevent shortcuts !)
7/ Plug in the new Gfx card Radeon 9700Pro (replug power obviously then)
8/ Boot up & Login as ROOT
9/ Install the previously downloaded package RPM :
rpm -i --force /Path_to_the_package/package_name.rpm
- in this very case the package_name.rpm should be fglrx-glc22-4.2.0-2.5.1.i586.rpm
- the option --force is needed to overwrite the file libGL.so
11/ Restart system (not per se needed, stupid Winblowzze habits ...)
12/ Login as user
13/ Fine tune your new installed Gfx display adapter & ENJOY !!!!
GLOBAL OPERATION TIME : 11 MINUTES
ATI ReWlez again !