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You might try a "du -s /" to see fi du (disk usage) gives you close to the same as you see with df. (It won't be exact but should be fairly close.)
A couple of things that might cause you to be out of space:
1) You deleted a file such as a log file that was "open". When this occurs only the file name actually gets deleted. The file inode is still there because of the running process holding it open. You can try to look for this with lsof (look for a memory used file handle with no name) then kill that process. It's a lot simpler to just reboot as that will kill all the processes.
2) You have a submount on a directory that has contents. e.g. If you had a directory mount for say /opt and mounted it AFTER you had put things in /opt the original contents are still part of / but are hidden by your mount.
Disk storage has two components. The disk space itself, reported by "df -h". And the inodes, reported by "df -i". It is possible to have enough space, but not enough free inodes. Generally you do not run into this situation. I have not seen it for years and years, and can't tell you what the error message would say. It's possible that both error conditions are generically lumped together into an "out of space" message. I don't know.